Install Wireshark Network Packet Analyzer on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to Install Wireshark on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. In fact, Wireshark is a free & open source network packet analyzer tool. It helps to capture all packet getting in or out of a network interface and shows. It supports all platform such as Linux, Windows and Mac OS.


How to install wireshark on ubuntu ?

1. Update the System with the below command:

$ apt-get update

2. Install the wireshark on system with the below command:

$ apt-get install wireshark

Next, you will be prompted to configure Wireshark.

Select the Yes option.

3. Add user to the WireShark group with the below command:

$ usermod -aG wireshark $(whoami)

4. Reboot the system:

$ reboot

5. Finally, to start Wireshark from Terminal using command:

$ wireshark

APT Security: What Are Advanced Persistent Threats?

This article covers an overview about APTs. An advanced persistent threat (APT) is among the most dangerous cyber threats a company can face.

These attacks are hard to detect and allow an intruder to hide within a network for months. While hackers stay in the system, a company suffers regular data losses and outages without knowing the cause of problems.

While advanced persistent threats were once considered specifically dangerous to government institutions and large enterprises, the threat landscape is constantly shifting. Now, no organization is safe from these types of attacks. 

Because they are difficult to detect, and remain in systems for long periods of time and cause devastating losses to their targets, it's important to educate ourselves.

Knowing what APTs are, how to recognize common signs of their presence in a network, and of course, staying diligent and having a good detection and response plan are essential in protecting any organization from this silent threat. 


What is difference between APTs and malware?

Most malware executes a quick damaging attack, but APTs take a different, more strategic and stealthy approach. 

The attackers come in through traditional malware like Trojans or phishing, but then they cover their tracks as they secretly move around and plant their attack software throughout the network.


Phases of APT attack:

A successful APT attack can be broken down into three stages: 

1. Network infiltration.

2. The expansion of the attacker's presence.

3. The extraction of amassed data—all without being detected.

8 Methods to prevent DNS attacks

This article covers a few tips to prevent DNS attacks.

Hackers will always try to target your public company services, researching to find weaknesses inside your Domain Name System.

Having a solid DNS hardening policy will help to mitigate most of the attacks described in this guide.

Therefore, Start auditing your DNS zones today in order to secure your DNS servers, collect information, and try to reduce your DNS public information as much as possible.


How to prevent DNS poisoning?

Thankfully, there is an antidote: DNS Security Protocol (DNSSEC).


Methods to protect DNS servers:

1. Use DNS forwarders.

2. Use caching-only DNS servers.

3. Use DNS advertisers.

4. Use DNS resolvers.

5. Protect DNS from cache pollution.

6. Enable DDNS for secure connections only.

7. Disable zone transfers.

8. Use firewalls to control DNS access.

Msvcr120.dll_clr0400.dll Missing Error in Windows 10

This article will guide you on the right steps to take to enable you fix Windows error "Msvcr120.dll_clr0400.dll is missing".

Configure SSL / TLS in Nagios Log Server - How to do it ?

This article covers how to configure SSL/TLS in Nagios Log Server. SSL/TLS provides security between the end user's web browser and Nagios Log

Server by encrypting the traffic. This guide is intended for use by Nagios Log Server Administrators who require encrypted connections to their Nagios Log Server.

Analyzing Logs With Nagios Log Server

This article covers how to analyze  logs with Nagios Log Server.  Basically, in order to analyze logs with Nagios Log Server one needs to be familiar with the options in the Dashboards menu. This guide is very essential to Nagios Log Server administrators and users looking for information on querying, filtering and drilling down the data in Nagios Log Server.

You can audit your IT infrastructure, maintain historical records of usage of IT infrastructure, create reports, and analyze logs using the Nagios Log Server.

PrestaShop back office error 500 or blank page - Fix it Now ?

This article covers methods to resolve PrestaShop back office error 500.

The error happens when the Back-office is accessed only from Debug mode activated or in production mode activated. The characteristic of this error is that it only occurs in one of the modes and not in both.

Also, this is an error that is occurring ONLY IN PRESTASHOP STORES VERSION 1.7, and that makes it impossible for us to enter the Back-office, showing an error 500 or the page goes blank. 

That's why we call it a critical mistake, for leaving the store inoperative.


To fix a HTTP 500 error on PrestaShop online store website:

You can activate your web host's FTP or CPanel error reports in your PrestaShop shop.

1.  From PrestaShop v1.4 to v1.5.2

i. Open config/config.inc.php

ii. On line 29, you will find this line: @ini_set('display_errors','off');

iii. Replace it with: @ini_set('display_errors','on');


2. PrestaShop v1.5.3 and later versions (including 1.6 and 1.7)

i. Open config/defines.inc.php

ii. On line 28, you will find this line: define('_PS_MODE_DEV_', false);

iii. Replace it with: define('_PS_MODE_DEV_', true);

Once error reports from the FTP or CPanel are activated, you can browse your store's front or back office to find out what the problem is.


More about Server error 500:

Error 500 means Internal server Error. Whenever a 500 error occurs, the task to return information by the server to the web browser will stop. 

Therefore, as we mentioned above, this is a critical error that would leave the website inoperative.

The 500 errors, as we noted above, are internal server errors and their origin may be in a programming code error on any item that is included and related to the request for information returned by the server to the web browser. 

Therefore, not all 500 errors come from the same source.

WordPress error "Your Connection Is Not Private" - Fix it Now ?

As a result of the SSL connection, sensitive information is protected from being stolen while being transferred between the server and the browser, which is one step in hardening your WordPress security

"Your Connection Is Not Private Error" message means that Google Chrome is preventing you from visiting your site because it is untrusted.

Ultimately, the chrome browser prevents you from gaining access to your website because the SSL certificates cannot be validated.

Typically, the "connection is not private" error in google chrome originates from issues from the side of the client, or from problems with the site's certificate.


To Fix Your Connection Is Not Private WordPress Error:

1. Reload the page

2. Check your network connection

3. Set time and date on your computer

4. Try browser's incognito mode

5. Clear your Browser Cookies, Cache, and History 

6. Disable Antivirus Temporarily

7. Update your Operating System

8. Restart your Computer

Rebooting your device will help clear out the temporary cache. 

This could surely very well fix your issue.

Windows error "The volume does not contain a recognized file system" - Fix it Now ?

This article covers methods to fix 'The volume does not contain a recognized file system' the Windows error for our customers.

What Caused The Volume Does Not Contain the Recognized File System Error ?

Here are some of the reasons that can cause the error occurs on devices:
1. System re-installation
2. Presence of virus or malware
3. Unsafe system shut down.
4. Failure of file system conversion
5. Deletion of essential system files by mistake
6. Presence of bad sectors
7. Users misapplication
8. Virus/Trojan infection
9. Insufficient power supply

To fix this Windows error:

1. Proceed to Start and click on My Computer or This PC.
2. Select that drive that is not accessible and then choose Properties by right-clicking it.
3. From the Properties window, select the Tool tab and click on the Check button from the Error checking.
4. Select the Scan Drive option.
Once the scanning process is complete, please go back to This PC or My Computer to check whether the drive is fixed or not.

Enable CDN in Prestashop and Resolve related issues - How to do it ?

This article covers how to enable CDN on PrestaShop for our customers.
You can Speed up your website with the PrestaShop CDN addon.
Faster loading leads immediately to happier users and higher conversions.
Making your pages load faster will also improve your SEO.
Google ranks faster websites higher, so you'll soon receive more visitors from search engines.

To How to Enable CDN for Prestashop:

1. Make sure Prestashop is installed and work normally.
2. Login to Prestashop admin panel (e.g. http://prestashop.testing.com.my/admin1234/)
3. Navigate to Advanced Parameters > Performance.
4. Scroll down the page to Media servers and fill in the CDN hostname.
5. Click Save at the top right corner to save the setting.

Error: Function lookup() did not find a value for the name DEFAULT_EXEC_TIMEOUT

This article covers how to fix this issue found while installing OpenStack with packstack.
In the case you installed packstack with epel repo enabled, you need to uninstall it and all the dependences, and re-install it after disabling epel, so all the proper versions of dependencies are installed correctly.
1. To begin, ensure that epel repo is disabled and try again.
2. Run the following commands:

# yum autoremove epel-release
# yum autoremove openstack-packstack
# yum clean all
# yum install -y openstack-packstack

WordPress error 'Another update currently in process' – Fix it Now ?

This article covers how to resolve WordPress error 'Another update currently in process'.
Basically, this issue usually occurs when a WordPress user, or multiple users, are simultaneously trying to perform a WordPress update while a WordPress core update is running.
During a core update, an additional row called core_updater.lock is placed within the wp_options table of the website’s database. It serves to prevent any other updates from being run while the core update is in progress.
After the WordPress core has been updated, the core_updater.lock row will be deleted, which will allow users to perform any other updates.
The error message will disappear then, or it will be gone automatically after 15 minutes.

To fix this WordPress error:

1. Log into the WordPress administration dashboard and select Plugins > Add New. Search for Fix Another Update, then install and activate the plugin.
2. Navigate to Settings > Fix Another Update In Progress and the database lock will be removed.
3. If you wish to remove the lock directly in the database, Select Databases > phpMyAdmin from the cPanel menu.
4. Select your WordPress database from the sidebar, then click the Browse button next to the wp_options database table (your database prefix may be different).
5. In the database rows that appear, look for an entry called ‘core_updater.lock’ and select the Delete button to remove. You can now proceed with your outstanding updates.

Securing Web Servers from DoS attacks - Best Practices ?

This article covers Tactics To Prevent DDoS Attacks & Keep Your Website Safe.
Basically, it is impossible to prevent DoS and DDoS attacks entirely. But we can limit them to a certain extend by implementing security actions mentioned in this guide.
Denial of service attacks are here to stay, and no business can afford to be unprotected.

Facts about DDoS Attacks:
1. DDoS stands for Distributed Denial of Service.
2. It is a form of cyber attack that targets critical systems to disrupt network service or connectivity that causes a denial of service for users of the targeted resource.
3. A DDoS attack employs the processing power of multiple malware-infected computers to target a single system.

Best Practices for Preventing DDoS attacks:

1. Develop a Denial of Service Response Plan
Develop a DDoS prevention plan based on a thorough security assessment. Unlike smaller companies, larger businesses may require complex infrastructure and involving multiple teams in DDoS planning.
2. Secure Your Network Infrastructure
Mitigating network security threats can only be achieved with multi-level protection strategies in place.
This includes advanced intrusion prevention and threat management systems, which combine firewalls, VPN, anti-spam, content filtering, load balancing, and other layers of DDoS defense techniques.
3. Practice Basic Network Security
The most basic countermeasure to preventing DDoS attacks is to allow as little user error as possible.
Engaging in strong security practices can keep business networks from being compromised.
4. Maintain Strong Network Architecture
Focusing on a secure network architecture is vital to security. Business should create redundant network resources; if one server is attacked, the others can handle the extra network traffic.
5. Leverage the Cloud
Outsourcing DDoS prevention to cloud-based service providers offers several advantages. First, the cloud has far more bandwidth, and resources than a private network likely does. With the increased magnitude of DDoS attacks, relying solely on on-premises hardware is likely to fail.

Install Bcrypt in Docker and resolve related errors

This article covers how to install Bcrypt in Docker and fix relating Docker errors.

To fix bcrypt error on Docker:

The error looks like this,

internal/modules/cjs/loader.js:807
app_1 | return process.dlopen(module, path.toNamespacedPath(filename));

To resolve, simply Add the following lines of code to the start.sh file,

#!/usr/bin/env bash

# install new dependencies if any
npm install
# uninstall the current bcrypt modules
npm uninstall bcrypt
# install the bcrypt modules for the machine
npm install bcrypt
echo "Starting API server"
npm start

Here,

i. npm uninstall bcrypt would remove bcrypt modules for the other operating system.
ii. npm install bcrypt would install for the current machine that the app would be running on.

Updating Windows VM Templates on VMWare with PowerShell - How to do it

This article covers how to update Windows VM Templates on VMWare. 

The update process of a VM template on VMWare consists of the following stages:

1. A template from the Content Library is converted to a virtual machine.;

2. After starting it, an administrator logs on, installs approved Windows updates using WSUS, updates the required software;

3. After the updates have been installed, the VM is restarted, then turned of and converted back to the template.

Remove Nginx on linux in Vesta control panel - Step by Step process to do it

This article covers how to remove Nginx on Linux in the Vesta control panel. 

Vesta control panel (VestaCP) is an open source hosting control panel, which can be used to manage multiple websites, create and manage email accounts, FTP accounts, and MySQL databases, manage DNS records and more.


To uninstall VestaCP on CentOS, follow the steps below:

1. Connect to your server via SSH as root

2. Stop the Vesta service with service vesta stop:

$ service vesta stop 

3. Delete Vesta packages/software repository:

# yum remove vesta*

and

# rm -f /etc/yum.repos.d/vesta.repo

4. You may also want to remove /usr/local/vesta folder:

# rm -rf vesta

5. Now we have to remove the cron jobs for the user admin.

Let's list first the cron jobs:

# crontab -u admin -l
MAILTO=admin@ibmimedia.com
CONTENT_TYPE="text/plain; charset=utf-8"
15 02 * * * sudo /usr/local/vesta/bin/v-update-sys-queue disk
10 00 * * * sudo /usr/local/vesta/bin/v-update-sys-queue traffic
30 03 * * * sudo /usr/local/vesta/bin/v-update-sys-queue webstats
*/5 * * * * sudo /usr/local/vesta/bin/v-update-sys-queue backup
10 05 * * * sudo /usr/local/vesta/bin/v-backup-users
20 00 * * * sudo /usr/local/vesta/bin/v-update-user-stats
*/5 * * * * sudo /usr/local/vesta/bin/v-update-sys-rrd
40 2 * * * sudo /usr/local/vesta/bin/v-update-sys-vesta-all
03 3 * * * sudo /usr/local/vesta/bin/v-update-letsencrypt-ssl

6. Remove the cron jobs via crontab -u admin -e:

# crontab -u admin -e

7. Save and exit:


Configure PostgreSQL on Linux in Vesta control panel - How to do it

This article covers how to install and setup PostgreSQL on Vesta Control panel running RHEL, CentOS, Debian, or Ubuntu server. PostgreSQL is an advanced version of SQL which provides support to different functions of SQL like foreign keys, subqueries, triggers, and different user-defined types and functions.


To set up PostgreSQL on a RHEL or CentOS:

1. Install PostgreSQL packages

yum install postgresql postgresql-server postgresql-contrib phpPgAdmin

* If you have remi installed then don't forget to explicitly enable it.

yum install --enablerepo=remi postgresql postgresql-server postgresql-contrib phpPgAdmin


2. Initialize database cluster

service postgresql initdb


3. Download hba configuration

wget http://c.vestacp.com/0.9.8/rhel/pg_hba.conf -O /var/lib/pgsql/data/pg_hba.conf


4.  Start the server

service postgresql start


5. Set oracle user password

su - postgres

psql -c "ALTER USER postgres WITH PASSWORD 'pgp4sw0rd'"

exit


6. Enable pgsql databases support in vesta.

open /usr/local/vesta/conf/vesta.conf and set DB_SYSTEM to 'mysql,pgsql'


7. Register pg instance in control panel

v-add-database-host pgsql localhost postgres pgp4sw0rd


8. Download phpPgAdmin configuration

wget http://c.vestacp.com/0.9.8/rhel/pga.conf -O /etc/phpPgAdmin/config.inc.php

wget http://c.vestacp.com/0.9.8/rhel/httpd-pga.conf -O /etc/httpd/conf.d/phpPgAdmin.conf


9. Restart web server

service httpd restart


To set up PostgreSQL on a Debian or Ubuntu:

1. Install PostgreSQL packages

apt-get install postgresql postgresql-contrib phppgadmin


2. Download hba configuration

wget http://c.vestacp.com/0.9.8/debian/pg_hba.conf -O /etc/postgresql/*/main/pg_hba.conf


3. Restart the server

service postgresql restart


4. Set oracle user password

su - postgres

psql -c "ALTER USER postgres WITH PASSWORD 'pgp4sw0rd'"

exit


5. Enable pgsql databases support in vesta.

open /usr/local/vesta/conf/vesta.conf and set DB_SYSTEM to 'mysql,pgsql'


6. Register pg instance in control panel

v-add-database-host pgsql localhost postgres pgp4sw0rd


7. Download phpPgAdmin configuration

wget http://c.vestacp.com/0.9.8/debian/pga.conf -O /etc/phppgadmin/config.inc.php

wget http://c.vestacp.com/0.9.8/debian/apache2-pga.conf -O /etc/apache2/conf.d/phppgadmin


8. Restart web server

service apache2 restart

Show dropped packets per interface on Linux - Methiods to check it

This article covers how to Show dropped packets per interface on Linux. 

There can be various reasons for packet loss. It can be that the network transport is unreliable and packet loss is natural, the network link could be congested, applications cannot handle the offered load.

Sometimes there are too many packets, they are saved to a buffer, but they are saved faster than processed, so eventually the buffer runs out of space, so the kernel drops all further packets until there is some free space in the buffer.


You will learn the different Linux commands to see packet loss on Linux per-interface, including excellent tools such as dropwatch. 

We can also use Linux profiling with performance counters utility called perf.


To display show dropped packets per interface on Linux using the netstat:

The netstat command is mostly obsolete. Replacement for netstat is ss and ip command. 

However, netstat still available on older Linux distros, which are in productions. 

Hence, I will start with netstat but if possible, use the ip/ss tools. 

The command in Linux is:

$ netstat -i

$ netstat --interfaces


To display summary statistics for each protocol, run:

$ netstat -s

$ netstat --statistics


To show dropped packets statistics per network interface on Linux using the ip:

Let us see how to see link device stats using the ip command. 

The syntax is:

$ ip -s link

$ ip -s link show {interface}

$ ip -s link show eth0

Log Suspicious Martian Packets Un-routable Source Addresses in Linux

This article covers how to block and log suspicious martian packets on Linux servers.


Log Suspicious Martian Packets in Linux:

On the public Internet, such a packet's (Martian) source address is either spoofed, and it cannot originate as claimed, or the packet cannot be delivered. 

Both IPv4 and IPv6, martian packets have a source or destination addresses within special-use ranges as per RFC 6890.


Benefits of logging of martians packets:

As I said earlier a martian packet is a packet with a source address that cannot be routed over the public Internet. 

Such a packet is waste of resources on your server. 

Often martian and unroutable packet used for a dangerous purpose or DoS/DDOS your server. 

So you must drop bad martian packet earlier and log into your server for further inspection.


To log Martian packets on Linux?

You need to use sysctl command command to view or set Linux kernel variables that can logs packets with un-routable source addresses to the kernel log file such as /var/log/messages.


To log suspicious martian packets on Linux:

You need to set the following variables to 1 in /etc/sysctl.conf file:

net.ipv4.conf.all.log_martians

net.ipv4.conf.default.log_martians


Edit file /etc/sysctl.conf, enter:

# vi /etc/sysctl.conf

Append/edit as follows:

net.ipv4.conf.all.log_martians=1 

net.ipv4.conf.default.log_martians=1


Save and close the file.

To load changes, type:

# sysctl -p

Unable to add MySQL database in Plesk Customer Panel - Fix it now

This article covers how to fix issues that make it unable to add MySQL database in Plesk customer panel.


To resolve Cannot add MySQL database in Plesk Customer Panel:

1. Log in to Plesk and apply one of the following:

2. Enable Database server selection directive in Service Plans > Default > Permissions > Show more available permissions and press Update & Sync.

3. Switch MySQL default database server from None to localhost:3306 in Service Plans > Default > Hosting Parameters > Default Database Server and press Update & Sync.


Note:  it is also applicable to cases when Amazon RDS extension is installed. 

If it is needed to provide customer with the ability to select Amazon server, enable "database server selection" option.


How do I add a database to my Plesk Panel?

How to Create a New Database or Database User in the Plesk Control Panel

1. Log into your Control Panel.

2. Click on Databases.

3. Click on the Add New Database icon.

4. Next to Database Name enter the name you want to use.

For Type, choose either Microsoft SQL Server or MySQL (DNN uses the Microsoft SQL Server.).

Configure Varnish with Apache - How to do it

This article covers how to configure Varnish #cache on the #Apache server. Varnish is an HTTP accelerator and a useful tool for speeding up a server, especially during a times when there is high traffic to a site. 

It works by redirecting visitors to static pages whenever possible and only drawing on the virtual private server itself if there is a need for an active process.

#Varnish is a caching HTTP reverse proxy. It receives requests from clients and tries to answer them from the cache.


Where is varnish configuration file?

The Varnish configuration file will be located in the /etc/varnish directory in CentOS 7. 

To make Varnish work in front of Apache, you will need to set up some basic configurations. 

By default Varnish listens on port 6081 . 

You will need to change port 6081 to 80 so that website requests access the Varnish cache first.


What is varnish WordPress?

Varnish is a full-page cache and HTTP preprocessor which can be used to speed up requests for a WordPress site. 

Setting up Varnish is a technical task, as it requires installing and configuring a system package on a web server, rather than just installing a plugin.

Methods to secure database server - Best Practices

This article covers different methods to secure a Database Server. Database security helps: Company's block attacks, including ransomware and breached firewalls, which in turn keeps sensitive information safe. It Prevent malware or viral infections which can corrupt data, bring down a network, and spread to all end point devices.


SQL injection vulnerabilities occur when application code contains dynamic database queries which directly include user supplied input. 

This is a devastating form of attack and BSI Penetration Testers regularly find vulnerable applications that allow complete authentication bypass and extraction of the entire database.

SQL injection, also known as SQLI, is a common attack vector that uses malicious SQL code for backend database manipulation to access information that was not intended to be displayed. 

This information may include any number of items, including sensitive company data, user lists or private customer details.


Some known database security issues:

Security risks to database systems include,

1. Data corruption and/or loss caused by the entry of invalid data or commands

2. Mistakes in database or system administration processes, sabotage/criminal damage and so on.


There are numerous types of databases and many different ways to hack them, but most hackers will either try to crack the database root password or run a known database exploit. 

If you're comfortable with SQL statements and understand database basics, you can hack a database.


Practices for Database Security:

1. Protect Against Attacks With a Database Proxy.

2. Set Up Auditing and Robust Logging.

3. Practice Stringent User Account Management.

4. Keep Your Database Software and OS Up-to-Date.

5. Encrypt Sensitive Data in Your app, in Transit, and at Rest.

MongoDB error topology was destroyed - Fix it now

This article covers method to fix the error 'MongoDB error topology was destroyed' which happens due to many reasons that include interruption of the node server’s connection to the MongoDB instance while it was trying to write to it. If the mongo driver drops the connection for any reason.
Another reason could be mongoose disconnecting before the creation of mongo document indexes.
You might try updating mongo.
There's also a mongo config setting that can easily in the database using too much memory and being killed by the kernel.

DirectAdmin error is not a valid username

This article covers tips to resolve DirectAdmin error: is not a valid username which happens if the username length of the account is larger than the value set in the DirectAdmin configuration file.
To fix DirectAdmin Admin Backup/Transfer restore error with no details,  try to restore to a number than 10 characters.
You have to edit directadmin configuration and set this variable.
[root@mx ~]# vi /usr/local/directadmin/conf/directadmin.conf
then edit max_username_length to larger value. I my example 20.
max_username_length=20

Malicious TMP files and processes

This article covers method to resolve malicious tmp processes. Most malware installers delete itself and these TMP files after successful installation.
The use of TMP files for atomicity is an advantage attackers currently enjoy.
They could have done this operation in any folder of the system, but they choose to use the standard Windows Temp folder.
The first thing a malware installer (first stage of infection) does when executed on a target system - be it a dropper or downloader - is to install a copy of the malware and its components into their corresponding location in the system.

Hardening an Ubuntu Server

This article covers the the importance of passwords, user roles, console security, and #firewalls all of which are imperative to protecting Linux servers.
Hardening an #Ubuntu server is a critical step in any server setup procedure.
Any time that a new server is being brought up to host services, whether production, development, internal or external, the server's operating system must be made as secure as possible.


To make your Ubuntu #Linux server secure:
1. Secure Server Connectivity
2. Establish and Use a Secure Connection.
3. Use SSH Keys Authentication.
4. Secure File Transfer Protocol.
5. Secure Sockets Layer Certificates.
6. Use Private Networks and VPNs.
7. Monitor Login Attempts.
8. Manage Users.
9. Establish Password Requirements.

Back Pressure in Exchange server

This article will guide you on Back Pressure which is a feature that helps the Transport Service monitor system resources and stop message submission when it runs low on resources. 

Microsoft Exchange Transport Service Resource Monitoring.

Microsoft Exchange enables email to be delivered directly to a server. 

It works by sending the emails back to your individual workstations in which your staff can access. 

Small and medium-sized companies can achieve three benefits from using Microsoft Exchange. 

Centralize emails so that they can be backed up.


Exchange server roles:

1. Mailbox servers contain the transport services that are used to route mail.

2. Mailbox servers contain mailbox databases that process, render, and store data.

3. Mailbox servers contain the Client Access services that accept client connections for all protocols.

Troubleshoot Azure Cache for Redis timeouts

This article will guide you on how to troubleshoot Azure #Cache for Redis #timeouts. Azure Cache for Redis regularly updates its server software as part of the managed service functionality that it provides. 

Azure Cache for #Redis is a fully managed, in-memory cache that enables high-performance and scalable architectures. Use it to create cloud or hybrid deployments that handle millions of requests per second at sub-millisecond latency—all with the configuration, security, and availability benefits of a managed service.

This patching activity takes place largely behind the scene. During the failovers when Redis server nodes are being patched, Redis clients connected to these nodes may experience temporary timeouts as connections are switched between these nodes.


To help mitigate #Azure memory issues:

1. Upgrade the cache to a larger size so that you aren't running against memory limitations on the system.

2. Set expiration times on the keys so that older values are evicted proactively.

3. Monitor the used_memory_rss cache metric. When this value approaches the size of their cache, you're likely to start seeing performance issues. Distribute the data across multiple shards if you're using a premium cache, or upgrade to a larger cache size.


To fix #CPU bound on the server or on the client:

i. Check if you're getting bound by CPU on your client. High CPU could cause the request to not be processed within the synctimeout interval and cause a request to time out. 

ii. Moving to a larger client size or distributing the load can help to control this problem.

iii. Check if you're getting CPU bound on the server by monitoring the CPU cache performance metric. Requests coming in while Redis is CPU bound can cause those requests to time out. To address this condition, you can distribute the load across multiple shards in a premium cache, or upgrade to a larger size or pricing tier.

ACK scan DOS attack

This article will guide you on how the ACK scan DOS #attack works as well as methods to mitigate this. 

A port scan can help an attacker find a weak point to attack and break into a computer system. 

Just because you've found an open port doesn't mean you can attack it. But, once you've found an open port running a listening service, you can scan it for vulnerabilities.

Denial of service attack (DOS) is an attack against computer or network which reduces, restricts or prevents accessibility of its system resources to authorized users. The network of Bots is called botnet.

A Fraggle Attack is a denial-of-service (#DoS) attack that involves sending a large amount of spoofed UDP traffic to a router's broadcast address within a network. 

It is very similar to a Smurf Attack, which uses spoofed ICMP traffic rather than UDP traffic to achieve the same goal.

Common DoS attacks:

1. Buffer overflow attacks – the most common DoS attack.

2. ICMP flood – leverages misconfigured network devices by sending spoofed packets that ping every computer on the targeted network, instead of just one specific machine.

3. SYN flood – sends a request to connect to a server, but never completes the handshake.

To prevent port scan attacks:

i. Install a Firewall: A firewall can help prevent unauthorized access to your private network.

ii. TCP Wrappers: TCP wrapper can give administrators the flexibility to permit or deny access to the servers based on IP addresses or domain names.

DEBIAN_FRONTEND noninteractive in Docker

This article will guide you on why you should not set the DEBIAN_FRONTEND value to noninteractive is a 'cosmetic' change. If you really need to change its setting, make sure to change it back to its default value afterward. Simply prepending an apt command with DEBIAN_FRONTEND=something does not persist after the single command to which it is applied. 

apt-get update downloads the package lists from the repositories and "updates" them to get information on the newest versions of packages and their dependencies. 

It will do this for all repositories and PPAs.

To Preserve Configuration Files:

During package installation or upgrade, Debian may wish to prompt the user on overwriting a configuration file. 

This preference can be appended to the installation command:

apt-get install -q -y \
-o Dpkg::Options::="--force-confdef" \
-o Dpkg::Options::="--force-confold" \
postfix

This command will instruct the installer to quiet any messages, assume yes, and then upgrade configuration files if no changes are present in the new package.

ACK flood DDoS attack

This article will guide you on methods to prevent ACK flood #DDoS #attack. An ACK flood DDoS attack occurs when an attacker attempts to overload a server with TCP ACK packets. 

Client requests connection by sending #SYN (synchronize) message to the server. Server acknowledges by sending SYN-ACK (synchronize-acknowledge) message back to the client. Client responds with an #ACK (acknowledge) message, and the connection is established.

When computers communicate via TCP, received packets are acknowledged by sending back a packet with an ACK bit set. 

The TCP protocol allows these acknowledgements to be included with data that is sent in the opposite direction. 

Some protocols send a single acknowledgement per packet of information.

To stop a SYN #DDoS attack:

1. Filtering.

2. Increasing Backlog.

3. TCP half-open: The term half-open alludes to TCP associations whose state is out of synchronization between the two potentially because of an accident on one side.

4. Firewalls and Proxies.

5. Reducing SYN-RECEIVED Timer.

6. SYN Cache.

7. Recycling the Oldest Half-Open TCP.

NTP amplification attack

This article will guide you on steps to mitigate this #NTP amplification attack. An Amplification Attack is any attack where an attacker is able to use an amplification factor to multiply its power. Examples of #amplification #attacks include Smurf Attacks (ICMP amplification), Fraggle Attacks (#UDP amplification), and DNS Amplification.

DNS flood is a type of Distributed Denial of Service (#DDoS) attack in which the attacker targets one or more Domain Name System (#DNS) servers belonging to a given zone, attempting to hamper resolution of resource records of that zone and its sub-zones.

To harden your DNS server:

1. Audit your DNS zones. First things first.

2. Keep your DNS servers up-to-date.

3. Hide BIND version.

4. Restrict Zone Transfers.

5. Disable DNS recursion to prevent DNS poisoning attacks.

6. Use isolated DNS servers.

7. Use a DDOS mitigation provider.

8. Two-Factor Authentication.

WordPress Error Briefly Unavailable for Scheduled Maintenance

This article will guide you on how to #fix 'Briefly unavailable for scheduled maintenance' #error in WordPress. 

To take your site out of #maintenance mode and get rid of the “Briefly unavailable for scheduled maintenance. Check back in a minute” message, all you need to do is delete that . maintenance file.

There are many reasons a site might not load such as a misconfiguration, corrupt files, problems with a database or something as simple as needing to clear your browser's cache and cookies on your computer.

To place your #WordPress Website down for maintenance:

1. First, you need to select the status. You can select 'Enable Coming Soon Mode' or 'Enable Maintenance Mode'. 

2. You can also select redirect mode which allows you to simply redirect your users to some other website. 

3. After choosing maintenance or coming soon mode, click on the 'Save all changes' button.

Enable FirewallD logging for denied packets on Linux

This article will guide you on how to enable #FirewallD logging for denied packets on #Linux. It is an important task to keep an eye on the rejected and dropped packets using FirewallD for #Linux system administrators. 

To enable logging option you need to use #LOG iptables/kernel module. It turn on kernel logging of matching packets. When this option is set for a rule, the Linux kernel will print some information on all matching packets (like most IP header fields) via the kernel log.

To log a dropped packet in iptables:

1. iptables -N LOGGING: Create a new chain called LOGGING.

2. iptables -A INPUT -j LOGGING: All the remaining incoming packets will jump to the LOGGING chain.

3. line#3: Log the incoming packets to syslog (/var/log/messages).

To  restart iptables:

i. To start firewall from a shell enter: # chkconfig iptables on. # service iptables start.

ii. To stop firewall, enter: # service iptables stop.

iii. To restart #firewall, enter: # service iptables restart.

Memcached DDOS attack

This article will guide you on methods to mitigate Memcached DDOS attacks which occur mostly by accident. To mitigate this attack, you can Disable #UDP, #Firewall #Memcached servers, and so on.

 DoS attack is a denial of service attack where a computer is used to flood a server with TCP and UDP packets. A DDoS attack is where multiple systems target a single system with a DoS attack. The targeted network is then bombarded with packets from multiple locations.

DDoS attacks are illegal under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act. Starting a DDoS attack against a network without permission is going to cost you up to 10 years in prison and up to a $500,000 fine.

There are three essential security measures that all small businesses should take to protect themselves from #DDoS #attacks: Use a web application firewall (#WAF): The absolute best way to prevent a DDoS attack is through the use of a WAF that blocks bad traffic and prevents DDoS attacks from accessing your web server.

A Denial-of-Service (#DoS) attack is an attack meant to shut down a machine or network, making it inaccessible to its intended users. DoS attacks accomplish this by flooding the target with traffic, or sending it information that triggers a crash.

Different DDoS attack method:

1. UDP flood.

2. ICMP (Ping) flood.

3. SYN flood.

4. Ping of Death.

5. Slowloris.

6. NTP Amplification.

7. HTTP flood.

Joomla 503 service unavailable

This article will guide you on method to fix #Joomla #503 service unavailable which occurs due to web traffic or bad PHP scripts or corrupted #modules.

A 503 Service Unavailable Error is an HTTP response status code indicating that a server is temporarily unable to handle the request. This may be due to the server being overloaded or down for maintenance. 

To Fix an #HTTP #Error 503:

1. Reboot your server.

2. Check to see if your web server is going through maintenance.

3. Fix faulty firewall configurations.

4. Sift through your server-side logs.

5. Comb through your website's code to find bugs.

Monitor System Metrics with the TICK Stack on CentOS 7

This article will guide you on how the TICK stack can be a powerful tool for storing, analyzing, and visualizing time series data. To monitor InfluxDB _internal metrics in a production #cluster, use Telegraf and the influxdb input plugin to capture these metrics from the InfluxDB /debug/vars endpoint and store them in an external InfluxDB monitoring instance.

More about Kapacitor:

#Kapacitor is a native data processing engine for #InfluxDB 1. x and is an integrated component in the InfluxDB 2.0 platform. 

Kapacitor can process both stream and batch data from InfluxDB, acting on this data in real-time via its programming language TICKscript.

A retention policy (RP) is the part of InfluxDB data structure that describes for how long InfluxDB keeps data. 

InfluxDB compares your local server's timestamp to the timestamps on your data and deletes data that are older than the RP's DURATION . 

A single database can have several RPs and RPs are unique per database.

ICMP Flood Attack Methods to mitigate

This article will guide you on methods to mitigate ICMP flood #attack. This is the type of Denial of Service (DoS) attack in which an attacker attempts to crash, destabilize, or freeze the targeted computer or service by sending malformed or oversized packets using a simple ping command.

Many network administrators feel that ICMP is a security risk, and should therefore always be blocked at the firewall. It is true that ICMP does have some security issues associated with it, and that a lot of #ICMP should be blocked. 

But this is no reason to block all ICMP traffic!

To mitigate Ping flood attack:

1. Disabling a ping flood is most easily accomplished by disabling the ICMP functionality of the targeted router, computer or other device. 

2. A network administrator can access the administrative interface of the device and disable its ability to send and receive any requests using the ICMP, effectively eliminating both the processing of the request and the Echo Reply. 

3. The consequence of this is that all network activities that involve ICMP are disabled, making the device unresponsive to ping requests, traceroute requests, and other network activities.

DNS Amplification Attack

This article will guide you on different methods to mitigate DNS amplification attack. Basically, DDoS attacks can really freeze websites or even cause server downtime. 

DNS flood is a type of Distributed Denial of Service (#DDoS) attack in which the attacker targets one or more Domain Name System (DNS) servers belonging to a given zone, attempting to hamper resolution of resource records of that zone and its sub-zones.

A Domain Name Server (#DNS) Amplification attack is a popular form of Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS), in which attackers use publically accessible open DNS servers to flood a target system with DNS response traffic.

1. UDP reflection attacks exploit the fact that UDP is a stateless protocol.

2. An attacker then sends the UDP packet containing the spoofed source IP to an intermediate server. 

3. The server is tricked into sending its UDP response packets to the targeted victim IP rather than back to the attacker's IP address.

Copy rds snapshot to s3

This article will guide you on resolve common rds #error. Basically, the process to copy rds snapshot to s3 is simple and creates and saves backups of the DB instance in the Amazon S3 bucket. 

Amazon Relational Database Service (#Amazon RDS) makes it easy to set up, operate, and scale a relational database in the cloud. It provides cost-efficient and resizable capacity while automating time-consuming administration tasks such as hardware provisioning, database setup, patching and backups.

RDS creates a storage volume snapshot of your #DB instance, backing up the entire DB instance and not just individual databases. RDS saves the automated backups of your DB instance according to the backup retention period that you specify.

To copy a #RDS snapshot from one region to another:

1. Create a #snapshot of your RDS.

2. In your newly created snapshot go to Actions -> Copy Snapshot.

3. Click orange View snapshots in destination region.

4. In the target region's snapshots table find your copied snapshot, and wait until status "Copying" becomes "Completed".

5. Select the snapshot, click Actions -> Restore Snapshot.

Install XRDP Server

This article will guide you on steps to install XRDP #Server on #Ubuntu. To provide remote access via RDP, a Windows native protocol, XRDP behind the scenes uses #VNC, a remote access protocol more common in Linux.

After #xrdp is installed you can start the server with the following command:

Service xrdp start.

Service xrdp-sesman start (Thanks to Greg for pointing that out) — UPDATE!!

If want it to auto start after reboot you need to run this command also: update-rc.d xrdp enable (It will not start xrdp-sesman automatic).


To use XRDP Linux:

1. With #Ubuntu 18.04 first install xrdp: sudo apt-get -y install xrdp.

2. Next, one may adjust the configuration file: sudo nano /etc/xrdp/xrdp.ini.

3. Set encryption level to high: encrypt_level=high.

4. Next, allow just RDP through the local firewall: sudo ufw allow 3389/tcp.

Install Microsoft PowerShell on Ubuntu

This article will guide you on steps to install PowerShell on #Ubuntu. #PowerShell is a configuration management tool that brings the capabilities of Linux command-line interface (#CLI) control into the historically point-and-click Windows environment to manage Windows servers efficiently in virtual deployments.

With PowerShell and WSL, we can integrate Linux commands into #Windows just as if they were native applications. 

No need to hunt around for Win32 builds of #Linux utilities or be forced to interrupt your workflow to drop into a Linux shell.

To check the PowerShell version installed in your system, you can use either $PSVersionTable or $host command.

To get a list of PowerShell commands:

1. Get-Command gets the commands from #PowerShell modules and commands that were imported from other sessions. 

2. To get only commands that have been imported into the current session, use the ListImported parameter. 

3. Without parameters, Get-Command gets all of the #cmdlets, functions, and aliases installed on the #computer.

Install a module in DNN

This article will guide you on how to #install a module in #DNN.

To Install / Update a #DotNetNuke #Module:

1. Log into your site as either HOST or another supersuser level account.

2. Open Settings -> Extensions.

3. Click "install extension".

4. Drag and drop the package into the window, or browse to the desired file to upload it.

5. Click Next, accept the license, continue through the install. When finished click on the Return button.

Optimize Opencart website speed

This article will guide you on methods to optimize #OpenCart #Website to boost  and improve speed and pages load time.

OpenCart is one of the most recommended e-commerce platforms used by online merchants to set up their digital store. This PHP based platform provides users with an open source solution, allowing users to download and integrate any additional features to optimize one's e-commerce store.

Sometimes #websites load slowly because of the server. How this works is that your browser notifies your server asking it to send the data for your website over, so that the site can load. 

If there is an issue with the server, this will take longer than normal. The cause of slow servers usually lays with the web host.

To increase your Website page #speed:

1. Enable compression.

2. Minify CSS, JavaScript, and HTML.

3. Reduce redirects.

4. Remove render-blocking JavaScript.

5. Leverage browser caching.

6. Improve server response time.

7. Use a content distribution network.

8. Optimize images.

Effective methods to control bounce back email messages

This article will guide you on how to control #bounce back #email #messages. Email bounce back is the condition when emails fail to reach the recipient’s inbox. 

The accepted benchmark for bounced emails is 2%. This means for every 100 emails you send, two will be returned to you. Often times, your bounce rate will be much lower. Anything between 2% and 5% is worth noting.

On average maintaining a lower bounce rate is an essential part of your SEO. Normally, your bounce rate should be between 26% - 70%. On average you should maintain between 41% - 55%. However, if you could lower it down to 26% - 40% that's excellent.

To Reduce Email Bounce Rate:

1. Only Use Permission-Based (Opt-In) Email List.

2. Keep Your Subscribers' List Updated.

3. Don't Use Your First Campaign As A Way To 'Clean' Your List!

4. Verify The Email Addresses.

5. Be Consistent With Your Emails.

6. Write Quality Emails.

7. Avoid Creating Spam-Like Emails.

8. Do Not Use Free #Sender #Domains.

Imagick php install

This article will guide you on how to install #Imagick #PHP #extension. Imagick is the most popular PHP extension which helps to create edit convert, and/or manipulates images. ImageMagick is a free and open source, feature-rich, text-based and cross-platform image manipulation tool used to create, edit, compose, or convert bitmap images. It runs on #Linux, #Windows, #Mac Os X, iOS, Android OS, and many other operating systems.

To use Imagick with PHP in your server, you can easily achieve it with the following #command:

sudo apt-get install php-imagick.

php -m | grep imagick.

sudo service apache2 restart.

Duplicity restore full backup

This article will guide you on steps to perform a Duplicity-restore full backup. #Duplicity is an efficient #backup application.

#rsync is a protocol built for Unix-like systems that provides unbelievable versatility for backing up and synchronizing data. It can be used locally to back up files to different directories or can be configured to sync across the Internet to other #hosts.

Incremental Backup captures only the changes made since the last incremental backup. Saves both time and #storage space, and ensures that your backup is up to date. Differential Backup captures only the changes made since the last full backup, not since the last differential backup.

When a normal or full backup runs on a selected drive, all the files on that drive are backed up. This, of course, includes system files, application files, user data — everything. The downside of normal backups is that they take a very long time to run, and in some cases this is more time than a company can allow.

To Use Duplicity with GPG to Securely Automate #Backups on #Ubuntu:

1. Install the Prerequisite Packages.

2. Download and Install Duplicity from Source.

3. Create SSH Keys.

4. Create GPG Keys.

5. Run an Initial Test.

6. Create Your First Backup.

7. Restore a Backup.

VestaCP mail not working How to fix

This article will guide you on different methods to resolve #Vestacp #mail #problems which generally occurs mainly due to #Exim problem, firewall issues, and so on. This tips will resolve the #email problems in VestaCP.

To fix email not working:

1. Verify your internet connection is working. If it's not, there are four things you can do to fix it.

2. Make sure you're using the correct email server settings.

3. Confirm your password is working.

4. Confirm you don't have a security conflict caused by your firewall or antivirus #software.

How Chmod 777 works

This article will guide you on how to give #Chmod 777 to folders and files in #Linux. We also discussed the risks and more information about file permissions. 

If you are managing a Linux system, it is crucial to know how the Linux #permissions work.

You should never set 777 (rwxrwxrwx) permissions #files and #directories permissions. 777 means that anyone can do anything with those files.

To Give Root Privileges to a User in Linux:

1. Adding to Root Group using usermod. Let see how we can grant normal user root access by adding to root group.

2. Adding to #Root Group using Useradd Command.

3. Editing /etc/passwd file.

4. Setting as Sudo User.

Vim Show Line Numbers in Linux

This article will guide you on how to show line numbers in #Vim. You can ask #nano to temporarily turn on line numbers by pressing Alt-C (meaning “Hold down the Alt key and the C key simultaneously”). This will show line and column numbers near the bottom of nano's window.

To Turn on absolute line numbering by default in vim:

1. Open vim configuration file ~/.vimrc.

2. Append set number.

3. Press the Esc key.

4. To save the config file, type :w and hit Enter key.

5. You can temporarily disable the absolute line numbers within vim session, type:/> :set nonumber.


Use the “:set number” command if you want to enable absolute line numbers; or “:set relativenumber” for relative Vi numbers.

If you want to turn off the line numbering, remember the command “set nonumber.”

When you have both absolute and, hybrid numbers enabled, you’ll have access to the hybrid mode!

Laravel Contact Form to Send Emails with SendGrid

This article will guide you on steps to follow to create a #Laravel contact form to send #emails with the help of SendGrid.

#SendGrid manages all of the technical details, from scaling the infrastructure to #ISP outreach and reputation monitoring to whitelist services and real time analytics.

To integrate with SendGrid's #SMTP #API:

1. Create an API Key with at least "Mail" permissions.

2. Set the server #host in your email client or application to smtp.sendgrid.net.

3. Set your username to apikey.

4. Set your password to the API key generated in step 1.

5. Set the #port to 587.

Rsync from Linux to Windows share

This article will guide you on how to use #Rsync to transfer #files from #Linux to #Windows share.

cwRsync is an implementation of rsync for Windows. rsync uses a file transfer technology specified by the rsync algorithm, transferring only changed chunks of files over the network. #cwRsync can be used for remote file backup and synchronization from/to Windows systems.

Syntax of rsync #command:

1. -v, –verbose Verbose output.

2. -q, –quiet suppress message output.

3. -a, –archive archive files and directory while synchronizing ( -a equal to following options -rlptgoD).

4. -r, –recursive sync files and directories recursively.

5. -b, –backup take the backup during synchronization.

HTTP Flood DDOS Attack How to Mitigate the attack

This article will guide you on how to recover from DDoS attacks. Basically, protecting the web server against #DDoS #attacks is important. You can apply these measures to mitigate the error from causing troubles.

DNS #flood is a type of Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack in which the attacker targets one or more Domain Name System (#DNS) servers belonging to a given zone, attempting to hamper resolution of resource records of that zone and its sub-zones.

To prevent DDoS attacks:

1. Buy more bandwidth. 

2. Build redundancy into your infrastructure. 

3. Configure your network hardware against DDoS attacks. 

4. Deploy anti-DDoS hardware and #software #modules. 

5. Deploy a DDoS protection appliance. 

6. Protect your DNS servers.

Smurf DDoS attack How to fix

In this article , you will learn the measures taken by our Support Experts to mitigate #Smurf #DDoS #attacks.
A Smurf attack is a form of a distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack that renders computer networks inoperable. The Smurf program accomplishes this by exploiting #vulnerabilities of the Internet Protocol (#IP) and Internet Control Message Protocols (#ICMP).
Smurf is a network layer distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack, named after the DDoS.Smurf malware that enables it execution.
1. DoS is one of the oldest forms of cyber extortion attack.
2. As the term indicates, distributed denial of service (DDoS) means it denies its service to a legitimate user.
3. Ping of death and teardrop attacks are examples of such attacks. Flooding: Sending too much data to the victim can also slow it down.

Backup Active Directory Domain Controller

This article will guide you on how to #backup #active #directory domain controller.
A System State backup generally includes a copy of any installed device #drivers and related files, most of the Windows directory, the #Windows #Registry, the Active Directory configuration (where applicable) and system files under Windows File Protection.
In production it is best practice to have at least 2 domain controllers per domain. If you factor in each child domain and the other domains that could easily scale up fast if you have two in each one.
To Configure Windows Backup Users on a Domain Controller:
1. Expand Active Directory "Users > Computers > Users".
2. Right-click the appropriate user who will be performing backups and click Properties.
3. On the Member Of tab, click Add to add the Backup Operators group to the User.
4. Click OK.

List installed software Linux

This article will guide you on different methods to #list all #software, the number of #packages available on the server along with the method to copy them and use them when we reinstall our operating system(#OS).
Yum automatically refreshes the list of packages, whilst with apt-get you must execute a command 'apt-get update' to get the fresh packages.
To list of installed programs in #Linux:
1. Aptitude-based distributions (#Ubuntu, #Debian, etc): dpkg -l.
2. RPM-based distributions (#Fedora, #RHEL, etc): rpm -qa.
3. pkg*-based distributions (#OpenBSD, #FreeBSD, etc): pkg_info.
4. Portage-based distributions (#Gentoo, etc): equery list or eix -I.
5. pacman-based distributions (Arch Linux, etc): pacman -Q.

Add Glance Cloud images to OpenStack

This article will guide you on steps to add #Glance #Cloud images to #OpenStack with different #Linux distributions which enables users to discover, register, and retrieve virtual machine images. 

After images are created they should be registered in Openstack Glance - #image operation service.

Upload Image Into Glance:

1. Replace <NAME> with the name that users will refer to the disk image by. 

2. Replace <IMAGE_FILE> with the local path to the image file to upload.

WordPress Visual Editor White Text and Missing Buttons

This article will guide you on different methods to fix your #white #text and #missing #buttons in #WordPress visual editor problem. 

Classic Editor is an official plugin maintained by the WordPress team that restores the previous ("classic") WordPress #editor and the "Edit Post" screen. It makes it possible to use plugins that extend that screen, add old-style meta boxes, or otherwise depend on the previous editor.

Often, the absence of #TinyMCE #plugin in many WordPress #themes causes white text and missing buttons error in WP visual editor. 

To resolve it, you can simply go to Plugins and click on 'Add New' option. Now, search for the TinyMCE Advanced plugin in WP plugin store.

To enable visual editor in WordPress:

1. Log into your WordPress dashboard. On the left-hand side, go to Users > Your Profile. 

2. Check the box beside Disable the visual editor when writing.

Install Graylog on CentOS 7 How to do it

This article will guide you on steps to #Graylog on #CentOS 7 and an effective method to make the logs more structured and searchable.

Graylog is a leading centralized log management solution built to open standards for capturing, storing, and enabling real-time analysis of terabytes of #machine data. 

Graylog is an open source log management platform which enables you to aggregate up to terabytes of log data, from multiple log sources, DCs, and geographies with the capability to scale horizontally in your data center, #cloud, or both.

To #Install Graylog 3 with Elasticsearch on CentOS 7:

1. Configure #SELinux. 

2. Add required #repositories 

3. Install #Java, #Elasticsearch, and #MongoDB. 

4. Configure Elasticsearch for Graylog. 

5. Install Graylog 3 on CentOS 7. 

6. Start Graylog service on CentOS 7.

Backup and Restore Nagios Log Server

This article will guide you on the steps to perform #backup and #restore a #Nagios #Log #Server cluster. Taking Backup and Restore of Nagios Log Server helps not to lose any data as it is held in other instances.

Backup and recovery describes the process of creating and storing copies of #data that can be used to protect organizations against data loss. #Recovery from a backup typically involves restoring the data to the original location, or to an alternate location where it can be used in place of the lost or damaged data.

To do a backup and system restore:

1. Click Start.

2. Go to Control Panel.

3. Go to System and Security.

4. Click Backup and Restore.

5. At the Back up or restore your files screen, click Restore my files. 

6. Browse to locate the backup file. 

Steps to Back Up And Restore Nagios System

This article will guide you on how to perform #Backup and #Restore of the #Nagios System are important aspects of the #administration and #maintenance of the #system. 

Backups are an important aspect of administration and maintenance of your system. They can easily facilitate the #migration of a Nagios XI #installation between a virtual server and physical server, and the design of a fail-over or #disaster #recovery instance of Nagios XI.

There are three main types of backup: full, incremental, and differential:

1. #Full backup. As the name suggests, this refers to the process of copying everything that is considered important and that must not be lost.

2. #Incremental backup. 

3. #Differential backup.

Setting up OCSP stapling on Apache

This article will guide you on how to configure OCSP stapling on the Apache server.

To Check if #OCSP #stapling is enabled:

Go to https://www.digicert.com/help and in the Server Address box, type in your server address (i.e. www.ibmimedia.com). If OCSP stapling is enabled, under #SSL Certificate has not been revoked, to the right of OCSP Staple, it says Good.

To Configure your Apache server to use OCSP Stapling:

1. Edit your site's #VirtualHost SSL configuration. 

2. Add the following line INSIDE the <VirtualHost></VirtualHost> block: SSLUseStapling on. 

3. Check the configuration for errors with the Apache Control service. Apachectl -t.

4. Reload the Apache service. service apache2 reload.

Courier IMAP SSL How to secure your IMAP servers with SSL

This article will guide you on how to fix #IMAP #SSL #error which occurs as a result of incorrect file generation or wrong SSL #port #settings cause problems with the proper functioning of SSL on #courier IMAP SSL servers.

To add SSL support you have to install #OpenSSL or #GnuTLS before installing Courier-IMAP. #Download OpenSSL from http://www.openssl.org/, or GnuTLS from http://www.gnutls.org.

Remote Transport Pruning Failure How to troubleshoot

This article will guide you on steps to solve remote transport #pruning #failure in #cPanel which can occur when a directory has too much size, network #error, or due to the lowness of backup drive.

The remote transport process may time out if it tries to prune a very large directory. The following options can help you to solve this issue:

The transport may produce an error if it is unable to prune the directory due to its size. You can manually delete the directory from the remote backup location to troubleshoot this error.

Backup MariaDB Databases to Linode Object Storage with Restic

This article will guide you on how to backup #MariaDB Databases to #Linode Object Storage which helps in restoration in the event of a server fault, a user #error, or a hacking or defacing of #website or #applications.

Restore Active Directory from backup

This article will guide you on how to restore active directory from backup. Back up Active Directory on a regular basis

You should back up your Active Directory regularly with an interval that doesn't exceed 60 days. #AD services presume that the age of the Active #Directory backup cannot be more than the lifetime of AD tombstone objects, which by default is 60 days.

How to set up Amazon S3 through WHM

This article will guide you on how to configure Amazon S3 via WHM by accessing the 'Backup Configuration'.
To configure your #backups:
i. Login to #WHM and access "Backup Configuration >> Additional Destinations".
ii. Select #Amazon #S3 and click “Create new destination”.

How to install Metricbeat on CentOS 7 to Gather Infrastructure Metrics

This article will guide you on the steps to install #Metricbeat and configure the Elastic Stack to collect and analyze system metrics. Metricbeat is configured using a #YAML configuration file. On Linux, this file is located at: /etc/metricbeat/metricbeat. yml. On #Docker, you will find it at: /usr/share/metricbeat/metricbeat.
Both #Filebeat and #Logstash can be used to send #logs from a file-based data source to a supported output destination.

Method to Install Software From Source on Ubuntu

This article will guide you on steps to #install #software from #source on #Ubuntu. The Complete #command is apt-get which is the easiest way to install files/Softwares #packages.

Once installed, on the command line, you can use dpkg --listfiles packagename . For instance, dpkg --listfiles firefox . 

If you want to see what files a package contains without installing it, then you can install apt-file and use that.

How to Secure Django Admin

This article will guide you on the methods to secure #Django admin. You can Deploy your site behind #HTTPS.

Best practices for keeping Django admin secure.

Something less sophisticated like a fake Django admin login screen page django-admin-honeypot.

It is always better for security to deploy your site behind HTTPS. Deploy your site behind HTTPS, it's easy to implement and it's free #Certbot, just choose #software and system and you're ready to go.


Backup Outlook PST files

This article will guide you on how to perform #backup outlook PST files containing messages and all other Outlook data that is saved on the system which should be backup regularly.

#pst files created by using #Outlook 2010 are saved on your computer in the #Documents\Outlook Files folder. If you are using #Windows XP, these files are created in the My Documents\Outlook Files folder.

QUIC flood DDoS attack

This article will guide you on how to prevent your #Servers from #QUIC #DDOS #Attacks which is capable of overwhelming a targeted server with unwanted #UDP packets. QUIC uses UDP, but a QUIC flood is not necessarily the same as a UDP flood.

IIS Security for Sites Steps for server hardening

This article will guide you on the process to #secure sites in IIS to prevent site infections or defacing on a #Windows Server include poor file security or poor #configuration. 

In conclusion, the modular nature of #IIS allows for more granular control over web server resources and #security. However, this can either make your #web #applications more or less secure—depending on the person or group responsible for security.

YUM History command Ways to use it

This article will guide you on #YUM history #command in #Linux which provides a detailed history of YUM #transactions in order to find out information about installed packages and those that where removed/erased from a #system. 

The yum history command allows users to review information about a timeline of Yum transactions, the dates and times they occurred, the number of packages affected, whether transactions succeeded or were aborted, and if the RPM #database was changed between transactions.

Uninstall Software in Ubuntu 18.04 using Putty ssh tool

This article will guide you on the different methods to #uninstall #software in #Ubuntu using the terminal or an #ssh tool such as #putty.

Install Jenkins on Ubuntu 18 04

This article will guide you on the steps to install #Jenkins on #Ubuntu 18.04 which involves installing it from Ubuntu #packages or can download and install its WAR file.

Jenkins is a Java-based open source #automation server that helps to repetitive technical tasks.

Install and Configure ModSecurity on Ubuntu

This article will guide you on the steps to perform #ModSecurity installation on #Ubuntu which involves enabling Core Rule Set to handle malicious activities.

Restrict anonymous login and ban IP address of attacker Windows

This article will guide you on the steps to Restrict anonymous login and ban #IP address of attacker by using Local Group Policy Editor in #Windows which allows us to prevent anonymous login and #IPBan helps to ban IP of #attacker. 

Types of SQL server backups

This article will guide you on the different types of SQL Server backups and how to use them to run #SQL Server #backups to safeguard our #databases from user #errors, media failure, #hardware failure, and so on.

A full database backup backs up the whole database. This includes part of the #transaction #log so that the full database can be recovered after a full database backup is restored.

Point in Time Recovery in SQL Server

This article will guide you on how to perform point in time #recovery in #SQL #Server which is very useful for #database administrators in case of a need to recover accidental data deletes or drops. 

Backup, Restore and Migrate a MongoDB database on CentOS 8

MongoDB is highly scalable, using shards. Horizontal scalability is a big plus in most #NoSQL databases. MongoDB is no exception. It is also highly reliable due to its replica sets, and the data is replicated in more nodes asynchronously.

This article will guide you on the steps to perform #backup, #restore and #migrate a #MongoDB #database on #CentOS 8.

Repair corrupt sql bak file

This guide will help to repair corrupt sql .bak file when it comes to cases where you need to perform a data disaster prevention by means of database backup.

OpenStack instance Creation

This tutorial is all about assigning a fixed static IP address in OpenStack by creating ports and adding them to the instance.

Backup Hyper V Virtual Machines

This article will guide you on how to perform backup of Hyper-V Virtual Machines and how it works.

Search message tracking logs on Exchange 2016

This article will guide you on the different ways to search the message tracking logs by using the Get-MessageTrackingLog cmdlet in Exchange 2016.

Network packet size in SQL server 2016

This tutorial will guide you on the steps to modify the network packet size SQL server 2016 using the T-SQL and GUI method.

Windows update error 0x80070013

This article will guide you on the different methods to fix this Windows error which affects Windows Update processes.

Setting up Zimbra Amavis Spam filtering

This article will guide you on the steps to configure whitelist and blacklist on Zimbra Amavis for Zimbra Amavis Spam filtering.

Install Nagios XI in an offline environment

This article will guide you on how to install Nagios XI in an offline environment using powershell.

How to fix scheduled backups no longer working in Nagios

This article will guide you on how to solve Nagios scheduled backups failure which occurs when the database is currupted.

Managing disconnected mailboxes in Exchange server

This article will guide you on how to manage disconnected mailboxes in Exchange Server. You should note that after deleting an Exchange mailbox or an Active Directory user account, it stores the mailbox in the mailbox database for some time.

Openstack instance generating status error

This article will guide you on the best method of fixing Openstack instance generating status error caused by network issues or security issues.

Solution to error VMWare virtual machine disks consolidation is needed

This article will help you to fix the warning error "VMWare: virtual machine disks consolidation is needed" experienced when trying to delete a snapshot, the snapshot VMDK files or logs have not been deleted correctly.

How Yarn package manager works

In this article, we will install Yarn and consider different methods of managing Yarn package manager.

PhpMyAdmin installation on Debian

This article will take you through the steps you need to take to install, Configure and Secure phpMyAdmin on your Debian 10 Server.

How to solve exchange server 507 Insufficient storage error

Best Method to fix (507) Insufficient Storage error in Exchange remote server.

Solve rsync error code 19

Best method of fixing Rsync error code 19.

Method to upgrade MySQL in VestaCP

It is very important to upgrade your OS MySQL database to the latest version so as to keep the system more secured and to enjoy the latest features.

How to securely back up your Linux Ubuntu Centos and Debian Server

#Backup and #restore refers to technologies and practices for making periodic copies of data and applications to a separate, secondary device and then using those copies to recover the data and applications—and the business operations on which they depend in the event that the original data and applications are lost.

#rsync uses what is called a delta-transfer algorithm which compares files from source and destination and sends only the differences between them.


To automatically backup #files and directories in Linux:

1. archive the content. Backing up your files using tar is very simple using the following command: # tar -cvpzf /backup/backupfilename.tar.gz /data/directory.

2. create backup script. Now let's add tar command in a bash script to make this backup process automatic.


#Rsync, or Remote Sync, is a free command-line tool that lets you transfer files and directories to local and remote destinations. 

Rsync is used for mirroring, performing backups, or migrating data to other servers.

Backing up file systems means copying file systems to removable media (such as tape) to safeguard against loss, damage, or corruption. 

Restoring file systems means copying reasonably current backup files from removable media to a working directory.

Data losses can be a very frustration encounter for a server owner. To avoid such catastrophic situations in losing your website data, it is very important to do a regular backup for your server and website.

Install MongoDB on openSUSE Leap 15.3 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install MongoDB on openSUSE OS through the MongoDB repository.

Different methods to Install Debian (.deb) Package

This article covers how to install Debian (.deb) packages on Debian 11 Linux system. In fact, A file ending with ".deb" is called a Debian Software Package file, and it’s used to install apps on Linux. DEB files are used only in Debian-based Linux distributions like Ubuntu and its various flavors, Pop!_OS, Linux Mint, and others.

Install VLC Media Player on OpenSUSE LEAP 15.4 BETA

This article covers the installation of VLC media player on openSUSE system using different methods. In fact, VLC is a free and open source cross-platform multimedia player and framework that plays most multimedia files as well as DVDs, Audio CDs, VCDs and various streaming protocols.

Different ways of Updating Ubuntu 20.04 / 18.04

This article covers the concept of keeping your Ubuntu system updated. You can either Update Ubuntu via the command line or via the Software Updater GUI tool.

Install Sublime Text 3 on Debian 11 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to remove the sublime text editor from the Debian 11 system. In fact, Sublime Text is a cross-platform text editor written in C++ and python and developed for individuals who are looking for an effective yet minimalist tool for shuffling code around. Not only does it supports many languages, but you can also even extend the functionality using plugins.

Use Rsync on your Ubuntu 20.04 Linux system - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the basics of rsync command, how to transfer and sync files locally as well as remotely. In fact, Rsync is the most efficient, accessible, and secure ways to sync files between operating systems and servers.


How to Install Rsync On Linux System ?

1. Install Rsync Alma Linux, Fedora, Rhel, Rocky Linux based distributions:

$ sudo yum install rsync -y

2. Install Rsync Debian, Linux Mint, Ubuntu based distributions:

$ sudo apt install rsync -y


Rysnc Commands includes:

  • -a, –archive: archive files and directory while synchronizing ( -a equal to following options -rlptgoD)
  • -b, –backup : take the backup during synchronization
  • -l, –links: copy symlinks as symlinks during the sync
  • -d, –delete: deletes extraneous files from the destination location.
  • -e, –rsh=COMMAND: mention the remote shell to use in rsync
  • -h, –human-readable: display the output numbers in a human-readable format
  • -u, –update: don't copy the files from source to destination if destination files are newer
  • -r, –recursive: sync files and directories recursively
  • -n, –dry-run : perform a trial run without synchronization
  • –p, –progress: show the sync progress during transfer
  • -z, –compress: compress file data during the transfer
  • -q, –quiet: suppress message output
  • -v, –verbose : verbose output

Install Wireshark on Debian 10 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Wireshark on Debian 10. In fact, Wireshark is a network "sniffer" - a tool that captures and analyzes packets off the wire. With Wireshark, you can capture incoming and outgoing packets of a network in real-time and use it for network troubleshooting, packet analysis, software and communication protocol development, and many more.


How To Uninstall wireshark on Ubuntu 21.04

To uninstall only the wireshark package we can use the following command:

$ sudo apt-get remove wireshark

We can use the following command to remove wireshark configurations, data and all of its dependencies, we can use the following command:

$ sudo apt-get -y autoremove --purge wireshark

Methods to Remove PPAs Package Added in Ubuntu Linux system

This article covers the different methods to remove packages in Ubuntu Linux. 


How to use PPA ?

Ubuntu provides a platform called Launchpad that enables software developers to create their own repositories. An end user i.e. you can add the PPA repository to your sources.list and when you update your system, your system would know about the availability of this new software and you can install it using the standard sudo apt install command like this.

To summarize:

  • $ sudo add-apt-repository <PPA_info> <– This command adds the PPA repository to the list.
  • $ sudo apt-get update <– This command updates the list of the packages that can be installed on the system.
  • $ sudo apt-get install <package_in_PPA> <– This command installs the package.


A repository is a collection of files that has information about various software, their versions and some other details like the checksum.

Each Ubuntu version has its own official set of four repositories:

  • Main – Canonical-supported free and open-source software.
  • Universe – Community-maintained free and open-source software.
  • Restricted – Proprietary drivers for devices.
  • Multiverse – Software restricted by copyright or legal issues.

Backup Your Data on Ubuntu 20.04 using Fwbackups - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install fwbackups and backup data in the application on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, fwbackups is an open-source feature-rich user backup application that allows you to backup your important documents anytime, anywhere using a simple powerful interface with the support for scheduled backups and backing up to remote systems.


How to Install fwbackups on Debian and Ubuntu / Mint Linux ?

1. Install these following dependencies on your system:

$ sudo apt-get install gettext autotools-dev intltool python-crypto python-paramiko python-gtk2 python-glade2 python-notify cron

2. Then download fwbackups to your home directory using wget command and install it from source using the following commands:

$ wget http://downloads.diffingo.com/fwbackups/fwbackups-1.43.7.tar.bz2
$ tar xfj fwbackups-1.43.7.tar.bz2
$ cd fwbackups-1.43.7/
$ ./configure --prefix=/usr
$ make && sudo make install

3. Install fwbackups on CentOS and RHEL:

$ sudo yum install gettext autotools-dev intltool python-crypto python-paramiko python-gtk2 python-glade2 python-notify cron

4. Next, download fwbackups and install it from source using the following commands:

$ wget http://downloads.diffingo.com/fwbackups/fwbackups-1.43.7.tar.bz2
$ tar xfj fwbackups-1.43.7.tar.bz2
$ cd fwbackups-1.43.7/
$ ./configure --prefix=/usr
$ make && sudo make install

5. Install fwbackups on Fedora Linux:

$ sudo dnf install fwbackups


From the fwbackups Overview page, you can simply click on any one of the toolbar buttons to begin:

  • ⁠Backup Sets – To create, edit or delete backup sets as well as manually create a backup set.
  • ⁠One-Time Backup – Create "one-time" backups.
  • ⁠Log Viewer – Shows the information about fwbackups's activities.
  • Restore – Allows you to restore any backup from previously made backup.

How to install Bacula Server on Ubuntu Linux system ?

In order to install Bacula Server, log in to your Ubuntu instance and issue the command:

$ sudo apt-get install bacula -y

You will be prompted for the following:

  • Mail server configuration (unless you need email alerts, you can configure this as local only).
  • System mail name (this is the email domain for the server, if applicable).
  • Configure database for bacula-directory-pgsql (you want to do this and set it as localhost).
  • Configure a password for the Bacula PostgreSQL database.


Once you've completed the above, you'll get your prompt back and can continue on with the configuration.

Change Google Chrome Background - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to change the boring white background of the Google Chrome browser and make it more vibrant and alive by adding a background image and theme to it.


Steps to Add / change the Google homepage background image

  • Sign in to your Google Account in the top right corner of the Google homepage.
  • Click Change background image at the bottom of the Google homepage.
  • Choose where to select your background image (Public gallery, from your computer, your Picasa Web photos, your recent picks, no background)
  • Once you've chosen your image, click Select at the bottom of the window. It may take a moment before your new Google homepage background appears.

Install and Use MySQL Workbench on Fedora 35 / 34 / 33 / 32 - Step by step guide

This article covers how to easily manage your SQL databases using MySQL workbench on Fedora. In fact, the MySQL Workbench on Fedora or REHL allows the database managers, developers or DB architects to visually design the Database. It features Database Connection & Instance Management, SQL Editor, Visual EXPLAIN, SQL snippets collections, SSH connection tunneling, Unicode support, Data modeling, ER diagramming, Drag n Drop visual modeling, Database administration, Database account management, Performance monitoring, Performance Schema metrics, MySQL instance dashboard, Database migration, and more.

Install R Programming Language on Fedora 35 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how you can install the R programming language on Fedora 35. In fact, R is a programming language and programming software that is utilized for analyzing statistics, data modeling, graphical portrayal, and detailing. It involves the algorithms from machine learning, linear regression, time series, etc. R is the best software tool for programming developers, analysts, and data miners who are anticipating and trying to present the data in convincing manners.

The Best 5 Free and Open-Source GPS and Vehicle Management Software

This article covers the best, free open-source GPS and Vehicle Management Software that enables companies and empowers businesses to monitor and track the progress of their fleet and to stay ahead in the game to take timely decisions resulting in more positive outcomes and business growth. These include Detrack, GPS Trackit, Onfleet, Track-POD and Odoo respectively.

The Best 5 Free and Open-Source Team Communication Software

This article covers the best, free, and open-source team communication software that empowers and enables every individual whether working remotely or within office workplaces to work with much more efficiency and assist in taking timely decisions. They include Mattermost, Slack, Element, HubStaff, and Zulip respectively.

The 8 Best and free Open-Source Shipping Software

This article covers the best and open-source shipping software that empowers, enhances, and controls the companies’ and organizations shipping processes from top to bottom with high efficiencies and accuracies resulting in building strong customer relations. It also helps and guides through in achieving higher engagements, greater conversions with the built-in powerful and intuitive features and tools. They include Shippo, OpenBoxes, PrestaShop, ShippingEasy, ShipStation, ShipRush, Openshipping and Trackhive respectively.

Monitor User Activity With acct Tool on Ubuntu 20.04

This article covers how to monitor user activity with the acct tool on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, Acct can monitor the user activity & getting the information about the user performance. It provides the information about last commands executed by users, user logins / logouts details in hours by day-wise, system activity information,& individuals user information.


How to install acct on ubuntu ?

1. Update the System:

$ apt-get update

2. Install the psacct or acct on system:

$ apt-get install acct

3. Check the acct version:

$ ac --version

Install LAMP Stack on AlmaLinux 8 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install LAMP (Apache, MariaDB, and PHP) Stack on your AlmaLinux 8 system. In fact, LAMP compromises a web server ( Apache ), a database server ( MariaDB or MySQL ), and the PHP scripting language which supports dynamic web pages written in PHP. 

Install Suricata IDS on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Suricata IDS on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, Suricata is capable of real-time intrusion detection, intrusion prevention, and network security monitoring. For more information head over to the Suricata's documentation page.


Install and Use Neofetch on Linux ( RHEL /CentOS / Arch ) - Step by step Guide ?

This article covers different ways of installing Neofetch on major Linux distributions. In fact, Neofetch is a handy tool when you want to display information about the system you are working on. It's mostly useful in tutorials and guides when you want to show your readers the OS and hardware type you are using.

To see what other options you can specify with Neofetch, run the neofetch --help command.

Best 8 Open-Source Applicant Tracking Software

This article covers the best and free open-source applicant tracking software that helps the companies to build applicant's pipelines, along with reducing the hiring and administrative costs incurred during the process. In fact, Choosing the right candidate is always a crucial matter for any company or organization for its success. 

They include iKrut, HireList, YouCruit, SmartRecruiters, TalentRecruit, HRMantra, Zoho Recruit, and Ejobsitesoftware respectively.

Install MERN Stack for JS Based Applications on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install the MERN stack on your Ubuntu 20.04 system. In fact, The MERN Stack is made from four components: MongoDB, Express, React, and Node. It provides a bundle of JavaScript technologies used for building dynamic JS websites.

Install 7-zip on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install 7-zip on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, 7-Zip is an archive format that is widely used and gives a high compression rate.


How to Use 7Zip in Ubuntu Linux system ?

If you are on Ubuntu run the following commands:

$ sudo add-apt-repository universe
$ sudo apt update

After you have updated all your repositories run the following command to install 7Zip:

$ sudo apt install p7zip-full p7zip-rar

How to Install WordPress with LEMP (Nginx, MariaDB, and PHP) on Rocky Linux 8 ?

This article covers how to install the LEMP stack on Rocky Linux 8. In fact, The terminology LEMP is an acronym for Linux, Nginx (pronounced as Engine X, hence the E) which is a web browser, MariaDB or MySQL – database, and PHP for processing dynamic content). LEMP stack is popularly used for hosting high-traffic and highly scalable web applications and websites.

Install Chromium Browser on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the complete procedure of installing chromium on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, In fact, Popular browsers like Google Chrome, Microsoft Edge, Opera, Vivaldi, and Brave, to name a few, are all based on Chromium. 

Chromium browser is different from Chromium OS. But they both are maintained by the Chromium Project.



How to Install Chromium on Ubuntu Graphically ?

1. Start the Ubuntu Software Center.

2. Search for Chromium Browser and click on the appropriate result.

3. Click on Install.

4. Wait for the installation to finish. Once completed, you will see the "Remove" button.

5. Start Chromium via the Application menu.


How to uninstall Chromium from Ubuntu ?

You can uninstall Chromium browser graphically through the Ubuntu Software center or using the below commands:

1. To uninstall chromium using apt run the following command:

$ sudo apt remove chromium-browser

2. To uninstall chromium using snap run the following command:

$ sudo snap remove chromium

Install Bpytop Resource Monitoring Tool on CentOS 8 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Bpytop on the CentOS system. In fact, Bpytop provides a command-line interface to monitor system resources including disk, network, process, and CPU in real-time. Bpytop can be installed on several operating systems including Linux, macOS, and FreeBSD. Now you can start using it to monitor your system's resource usage.


How to Install bpytop on your Linux system ?

1. The best way to install the bpytop is by typing the following command to install or upgrade to the latest version:

$ pip3 install bpytop --upgrade

2. On Arch Linux install bytop, Run the pacman commands:

$ sudo pacman -Syu
$ sudo pacman -S bpytop

3. On Debian 11, We use the apt command:

$ sudo sh -c 'apt update && apt -y upgrade && apt -y install bpytop'

4. For RHEL 8 enable EPEL (see how to enable and use EPEL on CentOS 8) and then type the dnf command:

$ sudo sh -c 'dnf update && dnf install bpytop'

5. On FreeBSD install bpytop, Run the pkg command to install bpytop:

$ sudo pkg install bpytop

6. On Ubuntu snap installation, Execute the following snap command:

$ sudo snap install bpytop

Install Percona Database Server on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing Percona Database Server on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, Percona Server is fully compatible and a replacement for Oracle MySQL. Percona Server is used by thousands of enterprises to provide superior performance, scalability, and instrumentation for their workloads.

Install FreeIPA on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing FreeIPA open source identity management system on your Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa. In fact, FreeIPA is free and open source Identity, Policy, and Audit (IPA) suite sponsored by RedHat. It's an IPA solution combination of Linux (Fedora), 389 Directory Server, MIT Kerberos, NTP, DNS Bind, Dogtag, Apache web server, and Python.

Install Nethogs on CentOS 8 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install and use Nethogs on the CentOS system. In fact, Nethogs lets you view the bandwidth usage by your programs in order to help you figure out which processes are hogging your network bandwidth. 


Install Debian 11 Bullseye distribution on VirtualBox - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the step by step installation of Debian 11 distribution on Virtualbox.

Install Apache Subversion on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing Subversion on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, Apache Subversion, often abbreviated to SVN, is a version control system, distributed as open-source software.

Install Yarn on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - A step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Yarn on your Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa. In fact, Yarn is a tool for managing, updating, and sharing your Java code. Yarn works through node.js helping to track libraries, dependencies, and even enables you to share solutions with other developers. 

For additional help or useful information, we recommend you to check the official Yarn website.

Install Java 17 LTS (JDK 17 ) On Debian 11 - Different ways to perform it ?

This article covers how to install the latest OpenJDK, and by extension Java 17 on your Debian 11 Bullseye system. In fact, JDK 17 (JDK 17) has brought forward new language enhancements, updates to the libraries, support for new Apple computers, removals and deprecations of legacy features, and work to ensure Java code written today will continue working without change in future JDK versions.

Best 4 Open-Source Affiliate Software

This article covers the best 4 best affiliate software that ensures seamless affiliate management platforms. In fact, these software solutions are eLitius, OSI Affiliate, Affiliate Pro, and Affiliate Pro Script. All the discussed solutions are open-source and cross-platform compatible. 

Best 10 Free Asset Tracking Software

This article covers the market-leading and competitive asset tracking software solutions. In fact, these software offer either free subscriptions or free trials for its users to get acquainted with the amazing and feature-packed asset tracking software. The discussed software solutions are UpKeep, JIRA< MaintainX, QReserve, Asset Vue Inventory, ManWinWin, Alloy Navigator, Reftab, The Asset Guardian (TAG), and Pacific Timesheets.

Install Packet Tracer on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - A step by step process ?

This article covers how you can install Packet Tracer on your Ubuntu system. In fact, Packet Tracer is a network simulator software. It allows us to simulate all essential networking devices that are tested in the CCNA exam. 

Now you can start using Packet Tracer to test a small or a complex network topology. 

Install Python 3.10 on Rocky 8 - A step by step process ?

This article covers the process of installing Python 3.10 on Rocky Linux 8. In fact, Python is one of the most popular high-level languages, focusing on high-level and object-oriented applications from simple scrips to complex machine learning algorithms.


Clear apt-cache on Debian 10

This article covers how to clear the cache created by apt in a completely safe way. It is faster and simpler than manually deleting the cache directory. apt (Advanced Packaging Tool) is the package installation and dependency management tool in Debian and other Debian-based distributions. It works on top of 'Dpkg' which is nothing but the Debian package installer.

The way apt installs packages is: it downloads the package for the required software, and additionally it downloads the packages for all the dependencies for the required software.

Modify the Comment Color in Vim Editor in Linux Mint 20

This article covers the different ways of changing the comment color in the Vim editor in Linux Mint 20. In fact, The suitable color in the editor helps you to categorize, analyze and identify bug in the code. You can change color schemes that come with the software package or install vim themes. Now, you can make the comments in the Vim editor look all the more readable.

Enable Snap on Rocky Linux / AlmaLinux

This article covers how you can install and enable snap of your Rocky Linux system. In fact, Snap are packages that are developed to install on Linux systems regardless of what the Linux distribution flavor is. Therefore, it doesn't matter whether you are on Ubuntu, Debian Rocky Linux, Centos, OpenSUSE, etc.


How to install Snap-Store ?

In case you are using the Graphical user interface of Rocky Linux then we can also install Snap store GUI on it to install its packages using the graphical interface rather command line:

$ sudo snap install snap-store
$ reboot

With the completion of the above installation, go to Applications and search for Snap Store. When its icon appears, click to run it.

Install and Use FFmpeg on Debian 11

This article covers how to install and use the FFmpeg multimedia framework on Debian 11 bullseye distribution. In fact, FFmpeg is a cross-platform solution for streaming audio and video as well as recording and conversion. With FFmpeg, you can convert between various video and audio formats, set sample rates, capture streaming audio/video, and resize videos.


How to Install FFmpeg on Debian ?

1. Log in to SSH and Update Debian package lists:

$ sudo apt update

2. Install FFmpeg with the apt package manager:

$ sudo apt install ffmpeg

3. Check the installed FFmpeg version:

$ ffmpeg -version

Install Grsync on Debian 10 Linux system

This article covers how to install and remove Grsync from Debian 10 Linux system. In fact, Grsync is a Graphical rsync backup tool for Linux systems. It basically provides a graphical user interface to backup or sync important files & directories to remote machines or in local machines using rsync.


How to Install Grsync on Debian ?

Open the Terminal, run the below apt-get command:

$ sudo apt-get install grsync

Install Brave Browser on Debian 11 bullseye

This article covers How to Install Brave Browser on Debian 11. In fact, Brave is an open-source privacy-focused Internet web browser, which distinguishes itself from other browsers by automatically blocking online advertisements and website trackers in its default settings. 

Install LAMP Server on Debian 11

This article covers a step-by-step procedure of how you can install LAMP stack on the Debian 11 Bullseye server. In fact, LAMP is a popular opensource stack that stands for Linux Apache MySQL/MariaDB and PHP. It’s mostly used by front-end and back-end developers to test and host a website. The stack comprises of 3 components. First, we have  Apache, which is a web server. Then we have Mariadb, which is a fork of MySQL and PHP which is a server-side scripting language. All the components are absolutely free and opensource.


How to Install Apache webserver on your Linux system ?

1. To get started, log into your server instance and update the package lists with the below command:

$ sudo apt update

2. Once your packages are up to date, install the Apache webserver with the below command:

$ sudo apt install apache2 apache2-utils

3. Once installed, verify the status of apache to see if it is running, by executing the command:

$ sudo systemctl status apache2

4. If apache is not running, you can start and enable it on boot using the commands:

$ sudo systemctl start apache2
$ sudo systemctl enable apache2

Install Lynx Browser on Ubuntu 20.04

This article covers how to install, run, and remove the oldest terminal-based browser Lynx for Ubuntu 20.04 LTS terminal. In fact, Lynx is a terminal-based web browser for all Linux distributions which shows the result as plain text on the terminal. 

Install Nethogs on Ubuntu 20.04 - Follow these steps ?

This article covers how to install and use the Nethogs utility in Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. In fact, nethogs is a networking monitoring tool for Linux capable of monitoring any specific network interface or all the networking interfaces on your computer. Also, it shows bandwidth usage per process on your computer in real time.


How to install nethogs on Ubuntu / Debian ?

nethogs is not installed on Ubuntu/Debian by default. But, it is available in the official package repository of Ubuntu/Debian.

1. First, update the APT package manager cache with the following command:

$ sudo apt update

2. Now, install nethogs with the following command:

$ sudo apt install nethogs

3. Now, to check whether nethogs is working, run the following command:

$ nethogs -V

Install NetHogs on Linux Mint 20 - Follow these steps ?

This article covers how to install the NetHogs network bandwidth monitoring utility very easily on your Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, you will be able to get the network bandwidth usage in real-time very efficiently without any sort of hassle.

HTTrack Advanced Configurations on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS

This article covers  every aspect of HTTrack settings. In fact, WebHTTrack backs up complete websites for offline access and modifies the links automatically. Despite ubiquitous Internet access, users often have good reason to create offline copies of websites – be it for archiving or to provide the content on your intranet. However, manual mirroring can be time-consuming and cumbersome. Tools like WebHTTrack can help, and they allow convenient updating of the content. Now you are ready to mirror any website using HTTrack on Ubuntu 20.04 Linux distribution. 

Install Yarn on Rocky Linux 8 / AlmaLinux 8 - Best method ?

This article covers the process of installing Yarn on Rocky Linux system. In fact, Yarn is a tool for managing, updating, and sharing your Java code. Yarn works through node.js helping to track libraries, dependencies, and even enables you to share solutions with other developers.

Install Yarn on Linux Mint 20 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install yarn on Linux Mint 20 distribution using the command line method. In fact, Yarn is a JavaScript package and dependency management tool that helps users to automate the tasks of installing, updating, removing, and configuring NPM packages. It is a good dependency package manager that is very helpful for experienced developers as well as for learners. 


How to Remove Yarn from Linux Mint 20 ?

If you no longer require Yarn and want to remove it from your Linux Mint 20 system, then it is very easy and straightforward to remove.

Issue the following command in the terminal to remove Yarn completely from your system:

$ sudo apt remove--autoremove yarn

Install ROS Noetic on Linux Mint 20 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers the installation of ROS Noetic on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, Robot Operating System (ROS or in lowercase ros) is the most widely used framework to program robots, more than 50% robots run on ROS. Once it is installed on your system, you can instantly start using it for the development of robotics applications. 

Install HTTrack Server on Ubuntu 20.04 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install HTTrack, run, and remove HTTrack on Ubuntu Linux system. In fact, HTTrack is an exclusive utility to copy web pages to a local disk for offline development and browsing to test web applications. 


How to Install Httrack on Kali Linux ?

You can install Httrack by running the following commands:

$ apt-get update
$ apt-get install httrack

Install GDebi on Linux Mint 20 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers the installation procedure of the GDebi tool on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, Gdebi is a lightweight deb packages installer is default in Ubuntu Desktop. It help you to Install and Manage Packages you downloaded from 3rd Party sites and Software centre.


How to Install GDebi through Command Line ?

If you don't have gdebi installed you'll get the below error:

$ sudo gdebi command not found

1. Update the APT Repository:

$ sudo apt-get update

2. Install Gdebi now:

$ sudo apt-get install gdebi

Install PostgreSQL 13 on Debian 11 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers a step-by-step procedure of installing PostgreSQL 13 on Debian 11 Bulls-Eye. In fact, PostgreSQL is an open source, powerful, resilient and fault tolerant relational database management system powering many mission critical applications. 


Features of PostgreSQL 13 includes:

  • Improvements from de-duplication of B-tree index entries – Space savings and performance gains from.
  • Queries that use aggregates or partitioned tables gets improved performance.
  • Incremental sorting.
  • Better query planning when using extended statistics.
  • Parallelized vacuuming of indexes.

Install "exa" on Linux Mint 20 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install "exa" on your system and use it as a replacement for the "ls" command in Linux Mint 20. In fact, exa is a modern replacement for the venerable file-listing command-line program ls that ships with Unix and Linux operating systems, giving it more features and better defaults. It uses colours to distinguish file types and metadata. It knows about symlinks, extended attributes, and Git. And it’s small, fast, and just one single binary. Using this modern tool will simply allow you to visualize your files and directories in Linux in a much better way.

Install bpytop on Linux Mint 20 - Complete guide ?

This article covers how to install bpytop tool on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, BpyTop is a Linux command-line utility for resource monitoring. It shows usage and stats for processors, memory, disks, network, and processes. With this tool installed on your system, you can use it very efficiently for resource usage monitoring.

To check the version of Python running on your Linux distribution, type:

$ python3 --version

After installing Bpytop, you can start monitoring your Linux system resources by running the command below:

$ bpytop

Install Timeshift on Debian 10 - Step by Step Procedure ?

This article covers how to install Timeshift on Debian 10 from its stable repositories. Timeshift brings the System Restore feature in Windows or the Time Machine tool in macOS to Linux.


How to Restore Ubuntu, Debian & Linux Mint from Snapshot using Timeshift ?

  • To revert your system to Snapshot state, select the Snapshot you want to restore to and click the "Restore" tab on the top menu.
  • This will ask you to "Select target device" and options for /boot and /home.
  • Timeshift will Perform Dry run before doing the actual restore.
  • Confirm Actions to initiate Snapshot restore process.
  • Timeshift will start to sync Snapshot files to the root filesystem.
  • The system should reboot after the process is completed.

Configure Timeshift on Linux Mint - How to get it done ?

This article covers how to perform backing up and restoring a Linux Mint system using the timeshift tool to ensure that your Linux system data is fully secure with daily, weekly, and monthly backups schedule. In fact, Timeshift is a backup and system restoration utility for Linux operating systems similar to the System Restore feature in Windows operating system. This tool protects the system by taking incremental snapshots of a filesystem at regular intervals.

Install ImageMagick on CentOS 8 - Step by Step process ?

This article covers how to install ImageMagick on the CentOS machine via different methods. Infact, ImageMagick provides a graphical interface for working with images, it also provides commands to resize an image, blur, crop, draw on, flip, join, re-sample, and much more.

Top 6 Free and Open-Source Call Tracking Software

This article covers the best, open-source, and cross-platform compatible call tracking software solutions. The listed software, i.e., Bitrix24, VICIDial.com, OSDial, Voicetronix, and Oreka GPL are all leading call tracking applications in the market. Many other solutions provide and ensure a seamless user experience, however, the combination of free, open-source, and cross-platform compatible software solutions along with exceptional features and capabilities does not come by so easily. 

The call tracking software is one of the essential tools or assets that helps you pinpoint effective marketing efforts and prioritize the most productive calls to generate more ROI. In addition to that, implementing call tracking applications is indeed a proven technique to increase your conversion rates. The free and open source call tracking software even paves the way for boosting the paid and organic searches and improving the customer experience. 

Control File Content in Debian 10 Buster Linux Server

This article covers how to efficiently use both diff and patch programs which help a Linux server admin to control their files and make new files when things go wrong. In fact, The grep command, which stands for global regular expression print, is one of the most versatile commands in a Linux terminal environment. It is an immensely powerful program that allows the user to sort input according to complex rules, which makes it a rather popular link in numerous command chains. The grep command is primarily used to search text or any file for lines that contain a match to the specified words/strings. By default, grep displays the matched lines, and it can be used to search for lines of text that match a regular expression(s), and it outputs only the matched lines.

Install Duplicity on CentOS 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install the free backup software duplicity on the CentOS 8 system. Now you will be able to maintain your critical data backups and prevent data loss. In fact, Duplicity is backup tool used to create Bandwidth-efficient and Encrypted backup in Linux based distributions. To connect to a file server for storing backup ssh, scp and sftp protocols are preferable methods, then rsync and ftp used for local file access.

Top 11 Free and Open-Source Linux Distributions for Hacking

This article covers the best free and open-source Linux distributions that provide the most efficient and capable platform to learn and perform ethical hacking tasks such as BackBox, Kali Linux, Fedora Security Lab, Parrot OS, BlackArch Linux, and Dracos Linux. Choosing the best OS for Hacking & penetration testing is a good sign to learn ethical hacking and Penetration testing concepts to enhance your skills and protecting the enterprise assets from cybercriminals.

Install LAMP Stack on CentOS 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install the LAMP stack on the CentOS system. If are using another Linux distribution, visit how to install LAMP stack on Debian, Ubuntu, Red Hat, and Rocky Linux. Basically, A LAMP stack is a collection of open-source software that you can use as a platform to create websites and web applications. The term LAMP is an acronym standing for Linux operating system, the Apache HTTP Server, the MySQL database system, and the PHP programming language.


In LAMP:

  • Linux serves as the server's operating system that handles all the commands on the machine.
  • Apache is a web server software that manages HTTP requests to deliver your website's content.
  • MySQL is a relational database management system (RDBMS) whose function is to maintain user's data on a server.
  • PHP is a scripting language for server-side communication.

Install Webmin on Rocky Linux 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers steps to Install and configure Webmin on Rocky Linux 8 using the automated installation script. Webmin web interface is used to set up user and disk management, Apache, DNS, PHP, MySQL, check CPU usage, system info, network config, and more.


How to Install Webmin using RPM package ?

It is also possible to install Webmin using the rpm package available on the download page of Webmin. This is the quickest way to get Webmin up and running on your Linux machine.

1. Install dependencies

Since Webmin is written in Perl, you need to install Perl and its dependencies:

$ sudo dnf install perl perl-Net-SSLeay perl-Data-Dumper perl-Encode-Detect

2. Download and Install Webmin RPM package

This will install the latest version of Webmin using the rpm package:

$ sudo dnf install https://www.webmin.com/download/rpm/webmin-current.rpm


How to uninstall Webmin ?

You can simply uninstall Webmin using the script /etc/webmin/uninstall.sh.

Configure and Use Git on Debian - Best Procedure ?

This article covers steps to install and configure Git on a Debian 10 server. As one of the most popular version control systems currently available, Git is a common choice among open-source and other collaborative software projects. Many project's files are maintained in a Git repository, and sites like GitHub, GitLab, and Bitbucket help to facilitate software development project sharing and collaboration.


How to install Git on Debian / Ubuntu Linux System ?

1. Use the apt package management tools to update your local package index and then download and install Git:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install git

2. You can confirm that you have installed Git correctly by running the following command:

$ git --version

Install PgAdmin 4 on Rocky Linux 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how you can Install and easily get started with PgAdmin4 for your Linux system. pgAdmin is an advanced, open-source, full-featured, and web-based administration and management tool for the PostgreSQL database server.

Install the Brackets Code Editor on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Guide ?

This article covers how you can install Brackets code editor on Ubuntu OS via either the command line or the GUI. Brackets is a powerful text editor focused on web development and especially on the frontend.


Features of Brackets code editor:
  • Cross-platform: It has binaries for Windows, Linux, and macOS. This makes the transition to Linux easy if you come from another system.
  • Open Source: With an open code, you can examine it. And above all, you will not have license problems.
  • Support extensions: Supports many different extensions that help even more with the functionality of the program.
  • Preprocessor Support: Work with preprocessors (LESS and SCSS) in a whole new way.
  • Live Preview: Get a real-time connection to your browser.
  • Inline Editors: Instead of jumping between file tabs, Brackets lets you Open a window into the code you care about most.

Install ROS Noetic on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install ROS Noetic on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. ROS (Robot Operating System) is an open-source project that provides a framework and tools for robotics applications. It helps to design complex software without knowing how certain hardware works.

Modify My Desktop Background in Ubuntu 20.04 - Steps to do this ?

This article covers different methods to modify Ubuntu Desktop Background as well as updating your background by using the command prompt. When you first install and run Ubuntu Linux the first thing you see when you log in is the default desktop. It has the Ubuntu brown color scheme and panels at the top and bottom of the screen. There are two predominant desktop environments available with Linux - the GNOME desktop and the KDE desktop. Which is the best desktop is matter of preference and heated disagreement in the Linux community. Both are excellent, feature rich desktops.


How to Change the desktop background in Ubuntu ?

To change the image used for your backgrounds:

1. Open the Activities overview and start typing Background.

2. Click Background to open the panel. The currently selected wallpaper is shown at the top.

3. There are two ways to change the image used for your backgrounds:

i. Click one of the background images which are shipped with the system.

Some wallpapers change throughout the day. These wallpapers have a small clock icon in the bottom-right corner.

ii. Click Add Picture… to use one of your own photos. By default, the Pictures folder will be opened, since most photo management applications store photos there.

4. The settings are applied immediately.

For another way to set one of your own photos as the background, right-click on the image file in Files and select Set as Wallpaper, or open the image file in Image Viewer, click the menu button in the titlebar and select Set as Wallpaper.

5. Switch to an empty workspace to view your entire desktop.

Migrate from CentOS 8 To Rocky Linux 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to easily migrate to Rocky Linux 8.4 from CentOS 8. Rocky Linux is a community enterprise operating system designed to be 100% compatible with RedHat Enterprise Linux. Rocky Linux dev team has created a migration script called migrate2rocky to easily convert an existing CentOS 8 system to Rocky Linux 8.


To Upgrade the current CentOS 8 Linux system to latest available version, run the command:

$ sudo dnf --refresh upgrade

After update is completed, Reboot your system:

$ sudo reboot

Install LAMP Stack on Rocky Linux 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install LAMP stack on Rocky Linux 8.4. You can now proceed to test or host your website and applications. A LAMP stack is a group of open-source software that is typically installed together to enable a server to host dynamic websites and web apps. This term is actually an acronym which represents the Linux operating system, with the Apache web server. The site data is stored in a MySQL database, and dynamic content is processed by PHP.


How to Install  and configure Apache Web Server ?

1. First, we will start by installing the Apache web server. To complete the installation, use the following command:

$ yum install httpd httpd-tools

2. Once the installation is complete, enable Apache (to start automatically upon system boot), start the web server and verify the status using the commands below:

$ systemctl enable httpd
$ systemctl start httpd
$ systemctl status httpd

3. To make your pages available to public, you will have to edit your firewall rules to allow HTTP and HTTPS requests on your web server by using the following commands:

$ firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-service=http 
$ firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-service=https 
$ firewall-cmd --reload
4. Verify that the web server is running and accessible by accessing your server’s IP address:
$ echo "Hello there, Apache webserver is now running" > /var/www/html/index.html

5. And restart tht Web Server to reflect the changes made:

$ systemctl restart httpd

From your browser,

http://IP_address


How to Install PHP on CentOS ?

1. To install PHP on your RHEL 8 use the command below:

$ yum install -y php-mysqlnd php-dom php-simplexml php-xml php-xmlreader php-curl php-exif php-ftp php-gd php-iconv  php-json php-mbstring php-posix php-sockets php-tokenizer

2. Now restart your web server so that Apache knows that it will be serving PHP requests as well:

$ systemctl restart httpd

Install the Brackets Code Editor on Linux Mint 20 - Best Method ?

This article covers the process of installing Brackets on a Linux Mint 20 system. Once this code editor is installed on your system, you can conveniently use it for professional-level frontend development. 

Brackets is a modern open-source code editor for HTML, CSS and JavaScript that’s built-in HTML, CSS and JavaScript. It has two great features: quick edit and live preview. It was created for front end developers and designers and has a very attractive interface. Brackets is developed by Adobe and is focused on web designers and front-end developers.


To Install Brackets Code Editor on Ubuntu:

1. make sure that all your system packages are up-to-date by running these following apt commands in the terminal.

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt upgrade

2. Install Brackets Code Editor.

$ sudo snap install brackets --classic

Install Gitea on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install Gitea on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. Gitea is a self-facilitated open-source git worker written in Go. It is a fork of Gogs . Gitea incorporates a store record supervisor, venture issue following, clients administrations, notices, implicit wiki, and considerably more. 

To Install Git on Linux, run the commands: 

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install git

To Confirm Git Installation, execute the command: 

$ git --version

Install Puppet on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers the installation of a puppet server on both master and client nodes and how to connect them. Ensure that you sign the puppet agent node certificate for both the master and client-side.

Puppet is a free and open-source automated administrative engine for Linux, Unix, and Windows operating systems. It is used for deploying, configuring, and managing servers and performs administrative tasks such as adding users, installing packages, and many more. It helps system admins to free up time and mental space by automating tasks on thousands of physical and virtual machines. It uses a client-server model. Where Puppet master controls configuration information for Puppet agents while Puppet agents talk to and pull down configuration profiles from the Puppet master.

Clear Apt Cache on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers the best method of listing and cleaning the apt cache on your Ubuntu system. Ubuntu users can clean Apt archive cache using sudo apt-get clean and sudo apt-get autoclean commands. The apt-get is a APT package handling utility or the command-line tool for handling packages. These commands clears out the local repository. The autoclean command only removes packages and files that are no longer in use. Ubuntu users can also do the same task from Synaptic package manager. Open Synaptic, go to Settings > Preferences > File tab. Select to delete packages that are no longer in use.

To clean Apt archive cache folder on Ubuntu, run:

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get clean
$ sudo apt-get autoclean


  • clean – clean clears out the local repository of retrieved package files. It removes everything but the lock file from /var/cache/apt/archives/ and /var/cache/apt/archives/partial/.
  • autoclean – Like clean, autoclean clears out the local repository of retrieved package files. The difference is that it only removes package files that can no longer be downloaded, and are largely useless. This allows a cache to be maintained over a long period without it growing out of control. The configuration option APT::Clean-Installed will prevent installed packages from being erased if it is set to off.

Top 5 Free and Open-Source Office Suites

This article covers the most efficient, free, open-source, and cross-platform compatible office suites. Apache OpenOffice tops our list of the best office suites available in the market, however, the paradigms to follow, i.e., LibreOffice, OnlineOffice and Calligra also offer a competitive user experience and list of features. All the discussed paradigms incorporate a wide list of integrated tools that allow users to create, maintain and edit any kind of data, e.g., Calligra offers an enhanced list of ten different components (or tools) that allow users to almost do anything they want, from taking random notes to creating mathematical formulae, all features are provided in one enhanced and feature-packed paradigm. 

Microsoft Office is though a great competitor to the here discussed office suites, however, the paradigm is neither free nor open-source which makes its feature limited. The open-source paradigms offer a continuous platform to extend capabilities and functionalities thereby providing its users an unending sea of features and functionalities.

Office suite are a bundle of productivity software. The primary program contains a word processor, spreadsheet, and presentation software. It is a set of business applications with the same style of the user interface. 


Benefits of using free Office Suite:

  • Drafting documents
  • It helps you to calculate difficult formulas in minutes.
  • Allows you to writer blogs, articles, reports, with grammar correction tools.
  • Creating spreadsheets and presentations.
  • It helps you to keep track of what is going on.

Install Duplicity on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers the process to install duplicity on Ubuntu 20.04 and how to use it. Duplicity is an open-source tool that helps people create backups of their data. It basically just encrypts the user's data and stores it into a remote server. It's a very convenient and smart way to back up data, as it does not only store the data but also any changes made to it in the long run. This attribute makes Duplicity very space-efficient.


To Install Duplicity on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS,

1. Update the Package Repository:

$ sudo apt-get update -y

2. After updating the repository, consider running the following command to install duplicity:

$ sudo apt-get install -y duplicity

3. Verify the Installation:

$ apt-cache policy duplicity

Install Google Cloud SDK on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to Install and Set Up Google Cloud SDK on Ubuntu 20.04. The Google Cloud SDK provides us with the ability to access the Google Cloud via the terminal. It is a development toolkit that comes with multiple commands that help in managing the resources within the Google Cloud environment. 

Install Bluefish Editor on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers method to Install bluefish editor on Ubuntu 20.04 system. Bluefish is a text editor. It is used to write code in various programming languages like: C, C++, JAVA, Python, HTML etc.

It is cross-platform, lightweight and easy to learn. It provides many features of IDE to support development and designing of applications.


To Install Bluefish on Ubuntu:

1. Add PPA (Personal Package Archive)

Use the following command to add PPA in our system:

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:klaus-vormweg/bluefish  

2. Update Repository

Use this command to update our local repository:

$ apt-get update  

3. Install Bluefish

After updating, now, use this command to install bluefish:

$ sudo apt-get install bluefish

4. Run Bluefish

Now, we can run bluefish either by using terminal or from the application manager.

Execute this command to open bluefish editor:

$ bluefish  

Install Brave Browser on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers different methods of installation of brave browser software on Ubuntu. 


Main features of Brave web browser:

  • Search – Choose default search engine – Google, Bing, Yahoo, DuckDuckGo e.t.c.
  • Fast Browsing – According to its creators, Brave loads pages three times as fast out of the box with nothing to install, learn or manage.
  • Easy to switch to Brave – It's easy to import your settings from your old browser. You can do it during the welcome tour or later through the menus.
  • Support your favorite sites with Brave Rewards – with Brave Rewards activated, you can support the content creators you love at the amount that works for you.
  • Privacy and Security – Brave fights malware and prevents tracking, keeping your information safe and secure. Clearing of browsing data and a built-in password manager.
  • Form autofill which saves you time when working with forms.
  • Extensions/Plugins – Brave Desktop now supports most of the Chrome extensions in the chrome web store.

Install Notepadqq on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install notepadqq on Ubuntu 20.04 Linux system. Notepad is a similar copy of the most popular editor notepad++. Basically, Notepadqq is a text editor that is designed by developers for the developers. It supports more than 100 languages and useful to note down daily tasks.


How to Install Notepadqq on Debian / Ubuntu?

1. Add Repository

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:notepadqq-team/notepadqq  

2. Update Repository

$ sudo apt-get update  

3. Install Notepadqq

$ sudo apt-get install notepadqq  

4. After installation, we can access it either via terminal by typing notepadqq or by searching from the application manager. Run Notepadqq:

$ notepadqq 

Install s3cmd in Linux and Manage Amazon s3 Buckets

This article covers an overview of the s3cmd command-line tool and how you can use it to manage your Amazon S3 storage feature. S3cmd is an Open Source tool that is free for both commercial and private use, but you need to pay only for Amazon resources. so most of the users are using this tool for managing AWS S3 Buckets. S3cmd is a free command-line tool written in Python


How to use the s3cmd command line to manage the Amazon s3 bucket in Linux ?

To use s3cmd command to list s3 bucket, run the command:

# s3cmd ls

This command will list s3bucket from Amazon S3, If you are unable to get the list of the bucket then there will be the following reasons:

  • There is no bucket created in Amazon s3.
  • As you have used IAM user Access Key and Secret Key while configuring the s3cmd tool, please verify IAM user has required permission to access the s3 bucket.
  • If you are using an IAM role then check whether the s3 bucket policy is attached to the EC2 instance or not.

Install Nginx on CentOS 8 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install the Nginx server on a CentOS machine and add a firewall rule to allow traffic coming towards the Nginx server. Also, we've discussed how to remove Nginx from CentOS.

The Nginx is a free, open source, lightweight and high-performance web server designed for high-traffic use cases. It is also acting as a popular Web server behind the Apache Web server and Microsoft's IIS. Nginx is more resource-friendly than Apache. It can be served in front of other web servers as a reverse proxy.


How to Install Nginx Web Server ?

1. Install the nginx package with:

$ sudo dnf install nginx

2. After the installation is finished, run the following commands to enable and start the server:

$ sudo systemctl enable nginx
$ sudo systemctl start nginx

This will make Nginx start at system boot.

Send Processes to the Background in Debian 10 - Best Method ?

This article covers the best method to send processes to the background in your Linux system. This is helpful, if you have started a command on terminal and that command is taking to much time. Now you want to move that in background, so that you can continue with other tasks.


To list all jobs running in background use jobs command. It will show all running commands with their job id:

$ jobs


How to Place a Running Foreground Process into the Background in Linux ?

A foreground process is the a process. In order to place a foreground process into the background, we must first put the process to sleep, and then place it in the background.

Execute the command to run your process.

Press CTRL+Z to put the process into sleep.

Run the bg command to wake the process and run it in the background.

Install Java on Debian 9 System - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install and manage multiple Java versions on Debian 9 system. Also we described how to set default Java version and also how to uninstall Java once it is no longer needed.

Basically, the programming language Java and the Java virtual machine or JVM are used extensively and required for many kinds of software.


To install Default JRE/JDK Java on Debian.

1. First, update the package index.

$ sudo apt-get update

2. Next, install Java. Specifically, this command will install the Java Runtime Environment (JRE).

$ sudo apt-get install default-jre

When prompted, type y for yes to confirm the installation.

3. You can install the JDK with the following command:

$ sudo apt-get install default-jdk

Top 5 Best Time Tracking Software for Linux

This article covers the top and best functioning time tracking tools capable of tracking, managing, and providing insights such as reporting, on different tasks the users or employees have spent their time on. Project Hamster, actiTime, TimeCamp, Hubstaff, and Kimai, all are the most acclaimed time tracking software by many reviewers and Linux users across the globe. Each of the discussed tools offers seamless time tracking and reporting functionalities that enable companies or freelancers to manage their time, budgets, and accounting processes and operations.

Linux users are though less in number than the other platforms, still holds a significant market, and most of the servers, mainframe computers, and supercomputers are based on Linux.

Install Brave Browser on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install Brave browser on a Linux Mint 20 system. Brave is a free to use and open-source web browser developed by Brave Software, Inc. Its source code is based on the Chromium browser. Brave is designed to block ads and website trackers by default and guarantee privacy.


How to Launch Brave Web Browser on Linux Mint 20 ?

After installation you can use the terminal or Desktop Environment Launcher to start brave web browser on Linux Mint 20 Desktop machine:

$ brave-browser

Install LAMP Stack on CentOS 7 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install LAMP stack on CentOS 7. LAMP is a stack of applications that work together on a web server to host a website. With that being said, each individual program serves a different purpose.

In LAMP: 

  • Linux serves as the server's operating system that handles all the commands on the machine.
  • Apache is a web server software that manages HTTP requests to deliver your website's content.
  • MySQL is a relational database management system (RDBMS) whose function is to maintain user's data on a server.
  • PHP is a scripting language for server-side communication.


To install Apache easily using CentOS's package manager, yum:

1. Run the command.

$ sudo yum install httpd

2. Once it installs, you can start Apache on your server.

$ sudo systemctl start httpd.service

3. You can do a spot check right away to verify that everything went as planned by visiting your server's public IP address in your web browser.

http://your_server_IP_address/


Important PHP Modules:

  • php-bcmath.x86_64 : A module for PHP applications for using the bcmath library.
  • php-cli.x86_64 : Command-line interface for PHP.
  • php-common.x86_64 : Common files for PHP.
  • php-dba.x86_64 : A database abstraction layer module for PHP applications.
  • php-devel.x86_64 : Files needed for building PHP extensions.
  • php-embedded.x86_64 : PHP library for embedding in applications.
  • php-enchant.x86_64 : Enchant spelling extension for PHP applications.
  • php-fpm.x86_64 : PHP FastCGI Process Manager.
  • php-gd.x86_64 : A module for PHP applications for using the gd graphics library.

Top 5 Linux Distros for Gaming

This article covers the leading gaming distros for Linux. Pop!_OS tops our list of the best gaming distros available in the market for Linux operating system users. Ubuntu, being an efficient and overall optimal operating system that ensures execution of any task, comes second on our list. Whereas GamerOS, Fedora Games Spin, and Manjaro Gaming Edition follow the suit. The here listed paradigms are found and proven to be the best gaming distros for Linux by many reviewers and users. From Pop!_OS to Manjaro Gaming Edition, any adopted distro is ensured of providing an efficient, seamless, and enhanced gaming experience to the Linux gamers. 

However, many other distros too lead the market such as Drauger OS, Lakka, etc. Still, the distros listed in this guide have proven to outperform their peers numerous times and thereby are listed here as the top five best Linux Distros for Gaming.

Install Git on Debian 9 System - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install Git on your Debian server and how to Setting up Git. With versioning tools such as Git, you can track changes, revert to previous stages, and branch to create alternate versions of files and directories.


How to Install Git with Default Packages on Debian?

1. First, use the apt package management tools to update your local package index. 

After updating the system, you can download and install Git:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install git

2. You can confirm that you have installed Git correctly by running the following command:

git --version

Install MySQL on Debian 9 Stretch - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install mysql 8.0 and Secure MySQL on Debian 9 server. MySQL, the world's most popular open-source relational database management system is not available in the default Debian's repositories. MariaDB is the default database system in Debian 10. 

The MySQL APT repository provides a simple and convenient way to install and update MySQL products with the latest software packages using Apt. The MySQL APT repository provides MySQL packages for the following Linux distros: Debian.


How to Uninstall MySQL from Debian?

To remove MySQL, Run the following commands:

$ sudo apt-get remove --purge mysql-server mysql-client mysql-common -y
$ sudo apt-get autoremove -y
$ sudo apt-get autoclean
rm -rf /etc/mysql
sudo find / -iname 'mysql*' -exec rm -rf {} \;


How to secure MySQL ?

MySQL comes with a command we can use to perform a few security-related updates on our new install. Let's run it now:

$ mysql_secure_installation

This will ask you for the MySQL root password that you set during installation. Type it in and press ENTER. Then answer a series of yes or no prompts. 

Install Nginx on CentOS 7 Server - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to Install and configure Nginx on your CentOS 7 server. Now you can deploy your applications and use Nginx as a web or proxy server. 

Nginx is a high performance web server software. It is a much more flexible and lightweight program than Apache HTTP Server.


To Install Nginx Web Server on CentOS 8:

1. Install the nginx package with:

$ sudo dnf install nginx

When prompted, enter y to confirm that you want to install nginx. After that, dnf will install Nginx and any required dependencies to your server.

2. After the installation is finished, run the following commands to enable and start the server:

$ sudo systemctl enable nginx
$ sudo systemctl start nginx

This will make Nginx start at system boot.


To configure Firewall Rules on CentOS for Nginx:

1. Run the following command to permanently enable HTTP connections on port 80:

$ sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --add-service=http

2. To verify that the http firewall service was added correctly, you can run:

$ sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --list-all

3. To apply the changes, you'll need to reload the firewall service:

$ sudo firewall-cmd --reload

Install LEMP Stack on Debian 9 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers steps to install a LEMP stack on a Debian 10 server using MariaDB as the database management system. The LEMP software stack is a group of software that can be used to serve dynamic web pages and web applications. The name "LEMP" is an acronym that describes a Linux operating system, with an (E)Nginx web server. The backend data is stored in a MariaDB database and the dynamic processing is handled by PHP.

Although this software stack typically includes MySQL as the database management system, some Linux distributions — including Debian — use MariaDB as a drop-in replacement for MySQL.


To install Nginx Web Server.

1. Run the apt commands:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install nginx

On Debian 10, Nginx is configured to start running upon installation.

Install LAMP Stack on Debian 9 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install LAMP on Debian server along with PHPMyAdmin to manage your database. LAMP stands for Linux OS, with Apache web server, Data store in a MySql or MariaDB database, and dynamic content is processed by PHP.


To install Apache on Debian:

1. Run the following command:

$ apt-get install apache2

2. To restart your web server by typing the following command:

$ service apache2 restart

Install LEMP Stack on Ubuntu 18.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to Install a LEMP Stack on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. LEMP stack is a group of open-source software that is typically installed together to enable a server to host dynamic websites and web apps. LEMP stands for Linux OS, with the Nginx (pronounced like "Engine-X") web server, Data store in a MySQL database, and dynamic content is processed by PHP.


To install Nginx Web Server:

1.  Run the commands below to install Nginx.

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install nginx

2. Allow traffic on port 80.

$ sudo ufw allow 'Nginx HTTP'

You can verify the change by running:

$ sudo ufw status

Install LAMP Stack on Ubuntu 18.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers step by step process to install a LAMP stack on an Ubuntu 18.04 server. LAMP stack is a group of open-source software that is typically installed together to host dynamic websites. LAMP stands for Linux OS, with Apache web server, Data store in a MySQL database, and dynamic content is processed by PHP.


To Install Apache and Update the Firewall.

1. Install Apache using Ubuntu’s package manager, apt:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install apache2

2. Allow incoming HTTP and HTTPS traffic for this profile:

$ sudo ufw allow in "Apache Full"

Install Duplicity on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install Duplicity on your Linux system. After doing that, you will be able to maintain the backups of your critical data and hence prevent data loss. Moreover, you can also easily remove this backup software tool from your Linux system.

If you are a system administrator and responsible for managing servers than backing up data is one of the most important tasks of you. 

So you must have enough knowledge of backup tools that makes your task easier.

Duplicity is a free, open-source and an advanced command-line backup utility built on top of librsync and GnuPG. It produces digitally signed, versioned and encrypted tar volumes for storage on a local or remote computer. 

Duplicity supports many protocols for connecting to a file server including, ssh/scp, rsync, ftp, DropBox, Amazon S3, Google Docs, Google Drive, local filesystem, OneDrive, WebDAV and many more.


To install and configure Duplicity to perform manually and automate backup on Ubuntu 20.04 server:

1. You can update all of them with the following command:

$ apt-get update -y

2. After updating all packages, you will also need to install some required dependencies on your server. You can install all of them by running the following command:

$ apt-get install ncftp python3-paramiko python-pycryptopp lftp python3-boto python3-dev librsync-dev -y

3. By default, Duplicity is available in the Ubuntu 20.04 default repository. You can install it by just running the following command:

$ apt-get install duplicity -y

4. Once installed, verify the installed version of Duplicity with the following command:

$ duplicity --version

Top 5 Data Backup Software for Linux

This article covers Data Backup Software for Linux. Data Backup and Protection are key concerns of many users, companies, and organizations. For this purpose, many data backup and data protection systems have been introduced and still many are being developed every day, deciding to choose and select the best and most suitable platform meeting needs and requirements. Each tool offers enhanced and state-of-the-art capabilities to provide the utmost data protection and data backup. 

All the listed and discussed backup software, i.e., Acronis, Nakivo, IDrive, MSP360, and Backblaze assure utmost performance and are acclaimed by its users.

However, the task of selecting one tool among the top five best-listed backup software solely depends on user requirements and expectations from the backup tool along with the cost one is willing to spend on the backup software. 

Other than that, each tool listed provides commendable features and data protection services.


What to look for when choosing backup software for an enterprise?

Make sure the following features are supported backup software you deploy:

1. Open source software – You must use software for which the original source code is made freely available and may be and modified. This ensures that you can recover your data in case vendor/project stopped working on software or refused to provide patches.

2. Cross-platform support – Make sure backup software works well on the OS deployed on all desktop and server operating systems.

3. Data format – Open data format ensures that you can recover data in case vendor or project stopped working on software.

4. Autochangers – Autochangers are nothing but a variety of backup devices, including library, near-line storage, and autoloader. Autochangers allows you to automate the task of loading, mounting, and labeling backup media such as tape.

5. Backup media – Make sure you can backup data on tape, disk, DVD and in cloud storage such as AWS.

6. Encryption datastream – Make sure all client-to-server traffic will be encrypted to ensure transmission integrity over the LAN/WAN/Internet.

7. Database support – Make sure backup software can backup database server such as MySQL or Oracle.

8. Backup span multiple volumes – Backup software can split each backup (dumpfile) into a series of parts, allowing for different parts to existing on different volumes. This ensures that large backups (such as 100TB file) can be stored on larger than a single backup device such as disk or tape volume.

9. VSS (Volume Shadow Copy) – It is Microsoft's Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS) and it is used to create snapshots of data that is to be backed up. Make sure backup software support VSS for MS-Windows client/server.

10. Deduplication – It is a data compression technique for eliminating duplicate copies of repeating data (for example, images).

11.  License and cost – Make sure you understand and use of open source license under which the original backup software is made available to you.

12. Commercial support – Open source software can provide community based (such as email list or fourm) or professional (such as subscriptions provided at additional cost) based support. You can use paid professional support for training and consulting purpose.

13. Reports and alerts – Finally, you must able to see backup reports, current job status, and get alert when something goes wrong while making backups.

Install Minecraft on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers different methods to install and launch Minecraft on Ubuntu OS. Also, you can remove Minecraft in case you need to do so.

Minecraft is a game about placing blocks and going on adventures. It's set in infinitely-generated worlds of wide open terrain – icy mountains, swampy bayous, vast pastures and much more – filled with secrets, wonders and peril!


To Install Minecraft on Ubuntu:

1. Open the Terminal application either through the system Application Launcher search bar or by using the Ctrl+Alt+T shortcut.

Then, enter the following command in order to download the file Minecraft.deb from the Mojang website:

$ wget -o ~/Minecraft.deb https://launcher.mojang.com/download/Minecraft.deb

2. The most feasible way to install software from the .deb package is through the gdebi tool. If you do not have gdebi installed on your system, you can install is through the following command as sudo:

$ sudo apt install gdebi-core

3. Run the gdebi command as follows in order to install the Minecraft .deb package:

$ sudo gdebi ~/Minecraft.deb


How to Remove Minecraft from Ubuntu ?

You can completely remove Minecraft from your system along with all the configurations you might have made, through the following command:

$ sudo apt-get --purge remove minecraft launcher

You will be presented with a y/n option. Enter y and the Minecraft Launcher, and the downloaded game will be removed from your system.

Install PHP On Ubuntu 18.04 | 16.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers steps To Install Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP (LAMP) stack on Ubuntu Linux System. PHP stands for Hypertext Preprocessor, and it’s a script-based server-side programming language. PHP is often used to automate server tasks. It handles tasks like dynamic content, database requests, and processing and displaying data.

A "LAMP" stack is a group of open source software that is typically installed together to enable a server to host dynamic websites and web apps. 

This term is actually an acronym which represents the Linux operating system, with the Apache web server. 

The site data is stored in a MySQL database, and dynamic content is processed by PHP.


To Install PHP 7.2 with Apache on Ubuntu:

1. Ensure you are using the latest Ubuntu updates by entering the following command into a terminal window:

$ apt-get update && apt-get upgrade

2. To install PHP 7.2, enter the following command:

$ sudo apt-get install php libapache2-mod-php

Confirm the installation by hitting Enter. The system will download and install PHP from the software repositories. This command also installs dependencies and modules for use with Apache.

3. Verify PHP was installed, with the command:

$ php -v

Install Synaptic Package Manager on Linux - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install the synaptic package manager on a Linux distribution of your choice and hence make the package management process all the more easier.

Synaptic is a lightweight GUI front end to apt package management system used in Debian, Ubuntu, Linux Mint and many other Debian/Ubuntu based distributions.


Main Features of Synaptic Package Manager:

1. install, remove, and upgrade packages.

2. upgrade your whole system.

3. search and filter the list of available packages.

4. perform smart system upgrades.

5. fix broken package dependencies.

6. edit the list of used repositories (sources.list).

Install Android File Transfer for Linux on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install Android File Transfer for Linux on your Ubuntu distribution.

Now you can conveniently transfer files between your android phones and Linux system.
Android File Transfer is an MTP client tool that is used to transfer files from android devices to Linux OS and from Linux OS to Android devices.
It is similar to Android File Transfer that is available for Mac OS and has a very minimalistic and easy to use interface.

To Android file transfer for Linux:
1. Connect your Android device with your computer using a USB cable.

When prompted on Android device for allowing access to the device data, tap on Allow to allow access.
2. Launch Terminal by pressing Ctrl+Alt+T key shortcut.
Then you will need to update our system by adding the PPA to your list of software sources. For this, run the following command in Terminal:

$ sudo add-apt-repository "deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/samoilov-lex/aftl-stable/ubuntu artful main"

3. Once completed, run the following command in Terminal to update the repository.

$ sudo apt-get update

4. After your local repository is updated, run the following command in Terminal to install Android file transfer:

$ sudo apt install android-file-transfer

Top 5 Open-Source Text Editors

This article covers a list of all the top-performing text editors that are open source and cross-platform compatible.
They are rated best by many of the reviewers and users, therefore, deciding on one text editor that is best to meet all user requirements simply depends on the user demand and need from the text editing tool, which can differ from user to user.
Atom being top of our list of best text editors makes it so due to its modern yet simple user interface and a vast list of features.
However, the rest of the listed text editors, i.e., Vim, Gedit, Bracket, and VS Code too offer significant commendable features and enhanced user experience thereby making it to our list of best performing source code editors.
Hence, we believe, any of the text editors adopted from the list, will certainly result in a better user experience for the developers from across all the different platforms.

Abstract Factory – Design Patterns in Python

This article covers Abstract Factory design pattern in Python.

Basically, The Abstract Factory design pattern can also be used to create cross-platform UIs without coupling the client code to concrete UI classes and keeping all created views consistent with different operating systems.

Abstract Factory is a creational design pattern, which solves the problem of creating entire product families without specifying their concrete classes.

Abstract Factory Method is a Creational Design pattern that allows you to produce the families of related objects without specifying their concrete classes.
Using the abstract factory method, we have the easiest ways to produce a similar type of many objects.
It provides a way to encapsulate a group of individual factories.

Advantages of using Abstract Factory method:
This pattern is particularly useful when the client doesn’t know exactly what type to create.
1. It is easy to introduce the new variants of the products without breaking the existing client code.
2. Products which we are getting from factory are surely compatible with each other.

Disadvantages of using Abstract Factory method:
1. Our simple code may become complicated due to the existence of lot of classes.
2. We end up with huge number of small fies i.e, cluttering of files.

Examples of Factory pattern in Python:
1. With the Factory pattern, you produce instances of implementations (Apple, Banana, Cherry, etc.) of a particular interface -- say, IFruit.
2. With the Abstract Factory pattern, you provide a way for anyone to provide their own factory. This allows your warehouse to be either an IFruitFactory or an IJuiceFactory, without requiring your warehouse to know anything about fruits or juices.

Install Slack on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the different methods of installation of Slack on the Ubuntu 20.04 system in detail.
Slack is a well-known and modern communication tool used to organize various communications in channels so that teams can work together and communicate when needed.

Slack Installation on Ubuntu using Snap package:
1. Install snapd package in your system. write the appended command, and then hit enter.

$ sudo apt install snapd

2. If the latest apt is not installed in your system then try using apt-get update && apt-get upgrade to get all of the available updates.
3. You can install the slack by using affixed command. You need to type this command on the terminal then press enter.

$ sudo snap install slack --classic

Install Tig on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install Tig on your Ubuntu 20.04 system and hence interacting with Git all the more efficiently.
However, you can get rid of this utility any time you want by following the uninstallation procedure that we have shared with you in this guide.
Tig is a text-mode interface for git. It mainly serves as a Git repository browser. It can also assist in staging changes for commit at the chunk level.

Features of Tig:
1. Browses the commits in the current branch
2. Displays the commits for one or more specific branches
3. Compares two branches
4. Helps to see the changes for a single file
5. Displays the list of stashes
6. Shows references for branches, tags and remotes

To install tig on Ubuntu:
1. First update the system, run:

# sudo apt update

2. To install tig on ubuntu, run:

# sudo apt install tig


To uninstall tig on Ubuntu:
To completely remove tig from your Ubuntu machine, type;

# sudo apt remove tig -y

Install RPM Packages on CentOS 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install the RPM package on the CentOS 8 system.

Now you can easily download, install, update and erase Rpm packages on your CentOS system.
While working in Linux, you may have seen downloadable files with the .rpm extension.
Rpm files are designed to be downloaded and installed independently, outside of a software repository.
RPM Package Manager (RPM) is a free and open-source package management system for installing, uninstalling and managing software packages in Linux.

How to Download RPM Installation File on Linux ?
1. To install wget in CentOS, enter the following in a terminal window:

$ sudo yum install wget

2. To install weget in Fedora, enter the following:

$ sudo dnf install wget

3. Now, you can use the wget command to download the .rpm file you want.

Enter the following:

$ wget http://some_website/sample_file.rpm


To check the .rpm file for dependencies using the following command:

# sudo rpm –qpR sample_file.rpm

The system should list all the dependencies:
i. –q – This option tells RPM to query the file
ii. –p – This option lets you specify the target package to query
iii. –R – This lists the requirements for the package


How to install a .rpm file to your Linux CentOS or Fedora system ?
You can use the yum package manager to install .rpm files.
Enter the following:

# sudo yum localinstall sample_file.rpm

The localinstall option instructions yum to look at your current working directory for the installation file.

Install Jenkins on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how you can install Jenkins on Ubuntu OS. For further information about Jenkins, visit its official documentation.

Jenkins is an open-source automation server that can be used to easily set up continuous integration and continuous delivery (CI/CD) pipelines.

Continuous integration (CI) is a DevOps practice in which team members regularly commit their code changes to the version control repository, after which automated builds and tests are run. 

Continuous delivery (CD) is a series of practices where code changes are automatically built, tested, and deployed to production.


To install Jenkins on Ubuntu 20.04 as a standalone service:

1. Run the following commands as root or user with sudo privileges or root to install OpenJDK 11:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install openjdk-11-jdk

2. Once the installation is complete, verify it by checking the Java version:

# java -version

3. Import the GPG keys of the Jenkins repository using the following wget command:

# wget -q -O - https://pkg.jenkins.io/debian/jenkins.io.key | sudo apt-key add -

4. Next, add the Jenkins repository to the system with:

# sudo sh -c 'echo deb http://pkg.jenkins.io/debian-stable binary/ > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/jenkins.list'

5. Once the Jenkins repository is enabled, update the apt package list and install the latest version of Jenkins by typing:

# sudo apt update
# sudo apt install jenkins

6. Jenkins service will automatically start after the installation process is complete. You can verify it by printing the service status:

# systemctl status jenkins

Install Podman on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install Podman on your system. Podman is the drop-in replacement for Docker on the Red Hat/CentOS/Fedora environments. 

This new container technology improves on Docker by decentralizing the components necessary for container management. 

Instead of having a single daemon for everything, Podman uses individualized components that are only used when necessary. 

Another advantage of Podman is that it can work with pods, in similar fashion to Kubernetes. 


To install Podman with the command: 

$ sudo apt-get install podman -y

When the installation completes, verify the installation with the command: 

$ podman --version

Change Snap Packages Update Frequency - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to use Snap and how it updates. Snap packages are set to refresh (update) 4 times per day by default. 

It should also be noted that automatic updating of snap packages cannot be completely disabled directly from the snapd settings, as there's no option for this (what's up with that?), so if you want to disable this altogether, you'll have to resort to workarounds like blocking the snap update URL, or setting your Internet connection to metered and them using the refresh.metered option to hold the snap refresh process when a metered connection is detected (sudo snap set system refresh.metered=hold).


If you want to check if a certain snap is available from the snap store, use the syntax:

$ snap find [ package name ]


To view the current snap refresh (update) schedule for your system, use:

# snap refresh --time


To change the snap refresh schedule, use:

# sudo snap set system refresh.timer=<frequency>

You'll need to replace <frequency> with the snap refresh frequency you want to set for the timer, as defined in the Snapcraft documentation.

Install Ansible on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install and configure Ansible on Ubuntu 20.04. Ansible is a widely used automation tool in DevOps and used by thousands of developers and sysadmins to configure and deploy applications on servers.

It saves time and minimizes the effort required to handle a multitude of servers in a complex IT infrastructure. 


To install Ansible on Ubuntu:

1. First, refresh your system’s package index with:

# sudo apt update

2. Following this update, you can install the Ansible software with:

$ sudo apt install ansible

Press Y when prompted to confirm installation.


To check if Ansible is able to connect to these servers and run commands via SSH:

From your local machine or Ansible control node, run:

$ ansible all -m ping -u root

This command will use Ansible's built-in ping module to run a connectivity test on all nodes from your default inventory, connecting as root.

The ping module will test:

i. if hosts are accessible;

ii. if you have valid SSH credentials;

iii. if hosts are able to run Ansible modules using Python.

Install Mono on CentOS 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install and use Mono on CentOS 8 system. Mono is a platform for developing and running cross-platform applications based on the ECMA/ISO Standards. 

It is a free and open-source implementation of Microsoft’s .NET framework.


To Verify the installation by running the following command that prints the Mono version:

$ mono --version

Install MongoDB on CentOS 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers MongoDB installation on CentOS 8 system.

Instead, it uses JSON-like documents with dynamic schemas, meaning that, unlike relational databases, MongoDB does not require a predefined schema before you add data to a database. 

You can alter the schema at any time and as often as is necessary without having to set up a new database with an updated schema.


How to Start the MongoDB Service and Test the Database on Ubuntu?

1. Run the following systemctl command to start the MongoDB service:

# sudo systemctl start mongod

2. Then check the service's status:

# sudo systemctl status mongod

This command will return output like the following, indicating that the service is up and running

3. After confirming that the service is running as expected, enable the MongoDB service to start up at boot:

# sudo systemctl enable mongod


How to Managing the MongoDB Service on Ubuntu?

1. The systemctl status command checks the status of the MongoDB service:

# sudo systemctl status mongod

2. You can stop the service anytime by typing:

# sudo systemctl stop mongod

3. To start the service when it’s stopped, run:

# sudo systemctl start mongod

4. You can also restart the server when it’s already running:

# sudo systemctl restart mongod

5. If you ever wish to disable this automatic startup, type:

# sudo systemctl disable mongod

6. Then to re-enable it to start up at boot, run the enable command again:

# sudo systemctl enable mongod

Install Docker CE on CentOS 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to perform Docker installation and Configuration. Also, you will learn how to install Docker CE on the CentOS 8 system. Docker container technology allows you to run applications in a specific and isolated environment.

Docker Community Edition (CE) is the new name for the free Docker product.

To Install Docker CE on Linux:
1. Remove all existing docker applications (that might currently be installed) in order to make sure we are using a clean installation.:

# yum remove docker docker-client docker-client-latest docker-common docker-latest docker-latest-logrotate docker-logrotate docker-engine

2. Add an external repository that will help us obtain the Docker software:

# dnf config-manager --add-repo=https://download.docker.com/linux/centos/docker-ce.repo

3. Check what versions of docker we have in the repository:

# dnf list docker-ce

4. Install the version that best matches our CentOS server version:

# dnf install docker-ce --nobest

5. We can double-check if the installation was successful by using the version command:

# docker -v

Backup and Restore MySQL Databases on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to take Backups and restore a MySQL database on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8.


Advantage of logical backup:

The main advantage of logical backup over physical backup is portability and flexibility. 

The data can be restored on other hardware configurations, MariaDB versions or Database Management System (DBMS), which is not possible with physical backups.

Note that physical backup must be performed when the mariadb.service is not running or all tables in the database are locked to prevent changes during the backup.


The mysqldump client is a backup utility, which can can be used to dump a database or a collection of databases for the purpose of a backup or transfer to another database server. 

The output of mysqldump typically consists of SQL statements to re-create the server table structure, populate it with data, or both. 

Alternatively, mysqldump can also generate files in other formats, including CSV or other delimited text formats, and XML.


Advantages of Physical backup:

1. Output is more compact.

2. Backup is smaller in size.

3. Backup and restore are faster.

4. Backup includes log and configuration files.


You can use one of the following MariaDB backup approaches to back up data from a MariaDB database:

1. Logical backup with mysqldump

2. Physical online backup using the Mariabackup tool

3. File system backup

4. Replication as a backup solution


To Backing up an entire database with mysqldump:

Execute the command:

# mysqldump [options] db_name > backup-file.sql


Using mysqldump to back up a set of tables from one database:

To back up a subset of tables from one database, add a list of the chosen tables at the end of the mysqldump command:

# mysqldump [options] db_name [tbl_name …​]



To restore the data while keeping the original backup files, use the following procedure:

1. Run the mariabackup command with the --copy-back option:

$ mariabackup --copy-back --target-dir=/var/mariadb/backup/

2. Fix the file permissions.

When restoring a database, Mariabackup preserves the file and directory privileges of the backup. However, Mariabackup writes the files to disk as the user and group restoring the database. 

For example, to recursively change ownership of the files to the mysql user and group:

# chown -R mysql:mysql /var/lib/mysql/

3. Start the mariadb service:

# systemctl start mariadb.service

Install Atom Text Editor on Debian 10 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install Atom text editor on the Debian system. Atom is a very powerful text editor.

The Atom user interface is very clean and it has support for many important features such as split view, Git integration and so on. Atom is cross platform. It runs on Linux, Windows and macOS.


To Enable snaps on Debian and install Atom:

Snaps are applications packaged with all their dependencies to run on all popular Linux distributions from a single build. They update automatically and roll back gracefully. 

1. Enable snapd

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install snapd
$ sudo snap install core

2. To install Atom, simply use the following command:

$ sudo snap install atom --classic


To Update Atom Text Editor on Debian:

You can update the Atom when a new version is available. You can update it through your desktop standard Software Update tool. 

Alternatively, you can update by running the following commands in your terminal:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt upgrade

Install and Configure Redis in Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step Process ?

This article covers the installing and configuring the Redis server on Ubuntu 20.04. #Redis is an in-memory key-value store known for its flexibility, performance, and wide language support. You can use it as a Memcached alternative to store simple key-value pairs. 


To Install and Configure Redis on Ubuntu:

In order to get the latest version of Redis, we will use apt to install it from the official Ubuntu repositories.

1. Update your local apt package cache and install Redis by typing:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install redis-server

This will download and install Redis and its dependencies. 

2. Following this, there is one important configuration change to make in the Redis configuration file, which was generated automatically during the installation.

Open this file with your preferred text editor:

$ sudo nano /etc/redis/redis.conf

Inside the file, find the supervised directive. This directive allows you to declare an init system to manage Redis as a service, providing you with more control over its operation. The supervised directive is set to no by default. Since you are running Ubuntu, which uses the systemd init system, change this to systemd.

3. Start by checking that the Redis service is running:

$ sudo systemctl status redis

4. If, however, you prefer to start up Redis manually every time your server boots, you can configure this with the following command:

$ sudo systemctl disable redis

5. To test that Redis is functioning correctly, connect to the server using the command-line client:

$ redis-cli

6. To restart Redis:

$ sudo systemctl restart redis.service

Install Atom Editor on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step process ?

This article covers the different methods to install Atom editor on Ubuntu 20.04 system. Atom is an open-source text and source code editor for Windows, Linux, and macOS, developed by GitHub. 

It is called "A hackable text editor for the 21st century" due to being a highly customizable text editor.


To Install Atom Editor using Snap:

1. First, install the Snap package manager on your system if it is not already installed.

$ sudo apt update && sudo apt install -y snapd

2. Then, install Atom editor with the snap command.

$ sudo snap install atom --classic

Install Yarn on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step process to implement it ?

This article covers how to install Yarn on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS system. Yarn is a JavaScript package manager compatible with npm that helps you automate the process of installing, updating, configuring, and removing npm packages. 

It caches every download package and speeds up the installation process by parallelizing operations.


To Yarn on Ubuntu Linux:

1. Import the repository’s GPG key and add the Yarn APT repository to your system by running the following commands:

$ curl -sS https://dl.yarnpkg.com/debian/pubkey.gpg | sudo apt-key add -
$ echo "deb https://dl.yarnpkg.com/debian/ stable main" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/yarn.list

2. Once the repository is enabled, update the package list, and install Yarn:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install yarn

3. If you installed Node trough nvm, skip the Node.js installation with:

$ sudo apt install --no-install-recommends yarn

4. Once completed, verify the installation by printing the Yarn version:

$ yarn --version

Configure XRDP to Securely Connect Remote Linux Servers - Step by step process ?

This article covers how to install and use XRDP to securely connect to remote servers. Xrdp is an open-source implementation of the Microsoft Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) that allows you to control a remote system graphically. 

With RDP, you can log in to the remote machine and create a real desktop session the same as if you had logged in to a local machine.


Installing Xrdp on Debian:

Xrdp package is available in the standard Debian repositories. To install it, run:

$ sudo apt install xrdp 

The service will automatically start once the installation process is complete. You can verify that the Xrdp service is running by typing:

$ sudo systemctl status xrdp


How to Configure Xrdp on Linux?

The Xrdp configuration files are stored in the /etc/xrdp directory.

Whenever you make any changes to the configuration file you need to restart the Xrdp service:

$ sudo systemctl restart xrdp

Install and Use Curl Command on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step process to implement it ?

This article covers how to set up curl command on your Ubuntu 20.04 LTS machine. curl command is a tool to download or transfer files/data from or to a server using FTP, HTTP, HTTPS, SCP, SFTP, SMB and other supported protocols on Linux or Unix-like system.


To Install cURL for Ubuntu Linux:

1. Update your Ubuntu box, run: 

$ sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade

2. Next, install cURL, execute: 

$ sudo apt install curl

3. Verify install of curl on Ubuntu by running: 

$ curl --version

Install and Use Firewalld in CentOS / RHEL - Step by step process to implement it ?

This article covers method to Install and Use Firewalld in CentOS in order to increase the security of your Linux system. Note that the host-based firewall like firewalld is recommended by compliances like PCI DSS. 

FirewallD is a complete firewall solution that manages the system's iptables rules and provides a D-Bus interface for operating on them. Starting with CentOS 7, FirewallD replaces iptables as the default firewall management tool.

Firewalld services are predefined rules that apply within a zone and define the necessary settings to allow incoming traffic for a specific service.


How to install Firewalld on CentOS?

Firewalld is installed by default on CentOS 7, but if it is not installed on your system, you can install the package by running the command:

$ sudo yum install firewalld

Firewalld service is disabled by default. You can check the firewall status with:

$ sudo firewall-cmd --state

If you just installed or never activated before, the command will print not running. Otherwise, you will see running.

To start the FirewallD service and enable it on boot type:

$ sudo systemctl start firewalld
$ sudo systemctl enable firewalld


To open HTTP and HTTPS ports add permanent service rules to the dmz zone:

$ sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=dmz --add-service=http
$ sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=dmz --add-service=https

Make the changes effective immediately by reloading the firewall:

$ sudo firewall-cmd --reload

Zones provided by FirewallD:

1. drop: All incoming connections are dropped without any notification. Only outgoing connections are allowed.

2. block: All incoming connections are rejected with an icmp-host-prohibited message for IPv4 and icmp6-adm-prohibited for IPv6n. Only outgoing connections are allowed.

3. public: For use in untrusted public areas. You do not trust other computers on the network, but you can allow selected incoming connections.

4. external: For use on external networks with NAT masquerading enabled when your system acts as a gateway or router. Only selected incoming connections are allowed.

5. internal: For use on internal networks when your system acts as a gateway or router. Other systems on the network are generally trusted. Only selected incoming connections are allowed.

6. dmz: Used for computers located in your demilitarized zone that have limited access to the rest of your network. Only selected incoming connections are allowed.

7. work: Used for work machines. Other computers on the network are generally trusted. Only selected incoming connections are allowed.

8. home: Used for home machines. Other computers on the network are generally trusted. Only selected incoming connections are allowed.

9. trusted: All network connections are accepted. Trust all of the computers in the network.

Install Microsoft PowerShell in Ubuntu 20.04 - How to perform this task ?

This article covers the different methods for installing Microsoft PowerShell on Ubuntu which includes installation via package repository, via .deb package, and via snap. 

PowerShell for Linux is published to package repositories for easy installation and updates. 

As superuser, register the Microsoft repository once. 

After registration, you can update PowerShell with sudo apt-get install powershell.


To install PowerShell on Ubuntu 20.04:

PowerShell for Linux is published to package repositories for easy installation and updates.

So do the following;

1. # Update the list of packages.

$ sudo apt-get update

2. # Install pre-requisite packages.

$ sudo apt-get install -y wget apt-transport-https software-properties-common

3. # Download the Microsoft repository GPG keys.

$ wget -q https://packages.microsoft.com/config/ubuntu/20.04/packages-microsoft-prod.deb

4. # Register the Microsoft repository GPG keys.

$ sudo dpkg -i packages-microsoft-prod.deb

5. # Update the list of products.

$ sudo apt-get update

6. # Enable the "universe" repositories.

$ sudo add-apt-repository universe

7. # Install PowerShell.

$ sudo apt-get install -y powershell

8. # Start PowerShell.

$ pwsh

As superuser, register the Microsoft repository once.

After registration, you can update PowerShell with sudo apt-get install powershell.


To remove PowerShell from Ubuntu:

Run the command,

$ sudo apt-get remove powershell


How to Launch PowerShell on Linux or Mac?

1. Open a terminal and run the "powershell" command to access a PowerShell shell environment. 

2. This works on both Linux and Mac–whichever you're using. 

3. You'll see a PowerShell prompt beginning with "PS", and you can run PowerShell cmdlets just as you would on Windows.

List Installed Packages in Ubuntu 20.04 - How to perform this task ?

This article covers how you can list installed packages on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS system. Also, you can also filter a specific package from the list and count the number of installed packages on your system.


You can list all installed packages with apt command or apt-get command on Ubuntu Linux.

You need to use the apt or apt-get or dpkg command to list all installed packages on an Ubuntu Linux server from the bash shell prompt.


To see what packages are installed on Ubuntu Linux:

1. Open the terminal application or log in to the remote server using ssh (e.g. ssh user@sever-name).

2. Run command apt list --installed to list all installed packages on Ubuntu.

3. To display a list of packages satisfying certain criteria such as show matching apache2 packages, run apt list apache.


To List all installed packages only:

The apt command displays both installed and packages available to install:

$ apt list --installed


To list or find out if a specific package installed or not:

Run package policy as follows:

$ apt list -a pkgNameHere

Install UrBackup Server and Client on Ubuntu 20.04 - How to do it ?

This article covers how to install and setup the UrBackup server on Ubuntu 20.04. Here, you will also learn how we can add a Linux host to be backed up. 

The main reason for data backup is to save important files if a system crash or hard drive failure occurs, you will lose your data. 

Therefore, a backup solution is much important for any data critical organization.

UrBackup is a free and powerful network backup solution for personal and enterprise. It has almost all features you need from a backup software. UrBackup supports Linux, Windows and Mac OS X.


Benefits of having UrBackup Server on your network are:

1. Centralized backup management

2. Supports multiple clients

3. Supports multiple simultaneous backups

4. Easy to restore


To Install client on Debian or Ubuntu:

1. Install the dependencies UrBackup needs: WxWidgets >= 2.9.0 On Debian/Ubuntu you can do that with apt or your favourite package manager:

$ apt install build-essential "g++" libwxgtk3.0-dev "libcrypto++-dev" libz-dev

2. Download the UrBackup client source files and extract them via e.g.

$ wget https://hndl.urbackup.org/Client/2.4.11/urbackup-client-2.4.11.tar.gz

$ tar xzf urbackup-client-2.4.11.tar.gz


3. Build the UrBackup client and install it:

$ cd urbackup-client-2.4.11

./configure

make -j4

sudo make install


4. Make sure that the UrBackup client backend runs correctly:

$ sudo urbackupclientbackend -v info


5. Start the UrBackup client backend on startup by adding it e.g. to rc.local:

$ sudo chmod +x /etc/rc.local

editor /etc/rc.local

Now add /usr/local/sbin/urbackupclientbackend -d before the exit 0.


6. Start the UrBackup client frontend and setup your paths by executing:

$ urbackupclientgui

and clicking on the tray icon and add paths. You can also do that on the server.


To Install UrBackup Client on Windows:

If you have a fully functioning UrBackup Server on Ubuntu, then you can install UrBackup client on client computers. For example, you can install UrBackup client on Windows 10.

1. Download UrBackup client for Windows 10: https://hndl.urbackup.org/Client/2.4.11/UrBackup%20Client%202.4.11.exe

2. After you install the client software on Windows 10, it will automatically search and connect to the UrBackup server. 

3. You will see the client computer listed on your UrBackup web administration console.

4. There will be an UrBackup icon in your taskbar where you can do several things such as:

i. Change settings

ii. Add/remote backup path

iii. Change component to backup

iv. See the status

Install Spotify on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step process to do it ?

This article covers the different methods of installation of Spotify on the Ubuntu 20.04 system. 

Spotify is a Popular music streaming application used globally and users can use any of the methods discussed above for its installation. 

The uninstallation process is also quite easy and we covered it for the ease of our readers. 

Users can also update Spotify with each newly released version.


Where is Spotify installed Linux?

If you followed the instructions on https://www.spotify.com/download/linux/ and installed from Ubuntu Software or snap, it should be located at /snap/bin/spotify . 

If you installed the debian package, it should be located at /usr/bin/spotify .


To update Spotify on Ubuntu:

1. Update list of available packages:

$ sudo apt-get update.

2. Install Spotify:

$ sudo apt-get install spotify-client.


To uninstall Spotify on Linux:

1. Quit Spotify.

2. Uninstall. sudo apt-get remove spotify-client.

3. Remove old config and cache.

cd $HOME/.config. rm -r spotify. cd $HOME/.cache. rm -r spotify.

4. Reinstall by following instructions on https://www.spotify.com/download/linux. 


To Install via command line on Ubuntu:

If you don't have access or don't want to use Ubuntu Software, it is possible to install Spotify from the command line with snap. 

Run the following command in your terminal:

$ snap install spotify

Install Slack on CentOS 8 - Step by Step process to perform it ?

This article covers how you can easily install slack platform on your CentOS 8 Linux system through the command line. 

Using a slack application, team members of an organization can unify all conversations from different sources.


Slack is one of the most popular collaboration platforms in the world that brings all your communication together. 

Conversations in Slack are organized in channels. 

You can create channels for your teams, projects, topics, or any other purpose. 

You can search through everything that's been posted in channels or your messages. 

Slack also allows you to talk with your teammates over audio or video calls and share documents, images, videos, and other files.


To Install Slack on CentOS:

1. Update system

sudo yum -y update

2. Download and Install Slack on CentOS

sudo yum -y install wget

wget https://downloads.slack-edge.com/linux_releases/slack-3.4.0-0.1.fc21.x86_64.rpm

sudo  yum -y install https://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/epel-release-latest-7.noarch.rpm

sudo yum localinstall slack-3.4.0-0.1.fc21.x86_64.rpm

3. Start and Use Slack

Now that Slack is installed on your CentOS / RHEL 8 desktop, you can launch it through the command line,

$ slack

Install Opera Web Browser on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step process to perform it ?

This article covers how to install Opera web browser on an Ubuntu 20.04 system. Opera web browser provides its unique features and has many users all over the world.

Users can access and then use the Opera browser once they have installed it in their systems. You will also learn how to uninstall the browser from the Ubuntu 20.04 system.


To install Opera browser on Linux:

1. Add Opera browser Repository. Let's start by adding an Opera repository and keyring.

2. Install Opera Browser. At this stage to install the Opera browser on Ubuntu 18.04 Bionic Beaver is easy as executing the below command: $ sudo apt install opera-stable.

3. Start Opera Browser.


To Install Google Chrome on Debian:

1. Download Google Chrome. Open your terminal either by using the Ctrl+Alt+T keyboard shortcut or by clicking on the terminal icon.

2. Install Google Chrome. Once the download is complete, install Google Chrome by typing: $ sudo apt install ./google-chrome-stable_current_amd64.deb.


To start Chrome on Linux:

1. Edit ~/. bash_profile or ~/. zshrc file and add the following line alias chrome="open -a 'Google Chrome'"

2. Save and close the file.

3. Logout and relaunch Terminal.

4. Type chrome filename for opening a local file.

5. Type chrome url for opening url.


To install Google Chrome on Linux Mint:

1. Add this link to the list of repo sources "deb http://dl.google.com/linux/chrome/deb/ stable main"

2. Run in terminal "sudo apt-get update"

3. Run in terminal "sudo aptitude install google-chrome-stable"


The sudo apt-get update command is used to download package information from all configured sources.

So when you run update command, it downloads the package information from the Internet. It is useful to get info on an updated version of packages or their dependencies.


To Uninstall Opera on Ubuntu:

1. In order to uninstall Opera through the command line, enter the following

$ sudo apt-get remove opera-stable

2. The repository you added will still be residing on your system. Enter the following command in order to remove it:

$ sudo apt-delete-repository "deb [arch=i386,amd64] https://deb.opera.com/opera-stable/ stable non-free

Install Wine on Debian 10 - Step by step process ?

This article will guide you on steps to install Wine on Debian via WineHQ repository. Also you will learn how to uninstall it from your system if you no longer need it. 

For official documentation, you can visit Wine for Debian.

If you are working on Linux Mint OS, visit our post on How to Install Wine on Linux Mint 20 .


Wine stands for Wine Is Not an Emulator. While a virtual machine or emulator simulates internal Windows logic, Wine translates those Windows logic to native UNIX/POSIX-complaint logic. 

In simple and non-technical words, Wine converts internal Windows commands to commands your Linux system can natively understand.


To Check Wine Version:

Wine installation successfully completed. 

Use the following command to check the version of wine installed on your system

wine --version 


A Linux repository is a storage location from which your system retrieves and installs OS updates and applications. 

Each repository is a collection of software hosted on a remote server and intended to be used for installing and updating software packages on Linux systems.

Repositories contain thousands of programs.

Install Linux, Apache, MariaDB, PHP (LAMP) Stack on Debian 10 - Step by step process to do it ?

This guide will help you on how to #install the LAMP stack (Linux, Apache, MariaDB, and PHP ) in your #Debian system. 

LAMP stands for Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP. Together, they provide a proven set of software for delivering high-performance web applications.

For a web application to work smoothly, it has to include an operating system, a web server, a database, and a programming language. 

A LAMP Stack is a set of open-source software that can be used to create websites and web applications. 

LAMP is an acronym, and these stacks typically consist of the Linux operating system, the Apache HTTP Server, the MySQL relational database management system, and the PHP programming language.

To Install #LAMP stack on Ubuntu:

1. Update your system. sudo apt-get update.

2. Install Mysql. sudo apt-get install mysql-server mysql-client libmysqlclient-dev.

3. Install #Apache server.

4. Install #PHP (php7.0 latest version of PHP).

5. Install #Phpmyadmin (for #database).

Modify Zoom Background on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step process ?

This article will guide you on steps to easily change the background of the Zoom application whenever he wants on #Ubuntu #Linux System. In this way, you can ensure efficient bandwidth utilization.

#Zoom is a very popular video communication tool for chatting, online meetings, screen-sharing, video conferencing etc. 

It is supported by most of the popular operating system like #Windows, Linux, Mac, and Android.

Zoom offers a few default image options to choose from, but it also allows you to upload your own image.

To make my background zoom better:

1. Click Settings. 

2. Click Virtual Background. 

Note: If you do not have the Virtual Background tab and you have enabled it on the web portal, sign out of the Zoom Desktop Client and sign in again. 

3. Click on an image to select the desired virtual background or add your own image by clicking +Add Image.

Step by step process to install and use Steam on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS ?

This article will guide you on how to #install and get started with Steam on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. Steam on Linux made it easier for various hardcore gamers to switch to #Linux from Windows or #Mac for professional reasons.

Ubuntu is the best OS for developers because of the various libraries, examples, and tutorials. These features of ubuntu help considerably with AI, ML, and DL, unlike any other OS. 

Furthermore, Ubuntu also provides reasonable support for the latest versions of free open source software and platforms.

To Install #Steam from Ubuntu package #repository:

1. Confirm that the multiverse Ubuntu repository is enabled: $ sudo add-apt-repository multiverse $ sudo apt update.

2. Install Steam package: $ sudo apt install steam.

Use your desktop menu to start Steam or alternatively execute the following command: $ steam.


To play steam on #Linux:

i. To get started, click the Steam menu at the top-left of the main Steam window, and select 'Settings' from the dropdown. 

ii. Then click 'Steam Play' on the left side, make sure the the box that says 'Enable Steam Play for supported titles' is checked, and check the box for 'Enable Steam Play for all other titles'.

Shutter Screenshot Tool on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step process to install and use it ?

This article will guide you on methods to install and use the Shutter screenshot tool on Ubuntu 20.04. Once installed on your #Ubuntu Server , you can conveniently use it to take the screenshots as per your requirements and can even edit them if needed.

#Shutter is a screenshot tool in Ubuntu #Linux. Using Shutter we can take a screenshot of a specific area, window and whole screen.

Shutter allows you to capture nearly anything on your screen without loosing control over your screenshots (tabbed interface). 

Features of Shutter:

1. Capture a Specific Area

This allows you to select an arbitrary region of your screen and capture only those parts you really need. The screen can be zoomed and the selection can be resized or moved.

2. Capture your Desktop

Shutter does not only capture all the contents of your desktop (or workspace) – it also supports Multi-monitor settings, e.g. capture the active monitor

3. Capture a Window

Simply use your mouse to select the window you want to capture. Shutter will highlight the currently select window in an attractive and useful way. It is even possible to simply select a window from a list and capture it right a way.

4. Capture a Menu or Tooltip

Capturing menus or tooltips is very easy with Shutter. You select one of the options and a (user-defined) countdown starts. During this time you can open the desired menu or let a specific tooltip come up. Shutter will recognize and capture it.

5. Capture a Website

Shutter uses gnome-web-photo to capture a website without opening a browser window

Some Useful VLC Media Player Shortcut Keys

This article will guide you on #shortcuts you can use in VLC media player which can control this application very conveniently. Doing this will not only increase your productivity but will also save your time in locating and using the GUI based controls.

To Edit #VLC Media Player Shortcuts (Hotkeys):

1. In the Menu Bar click on Tools and then “Preferences” [CTRL + P is the shortcut].

2. On the left of the preferences option go to “Hotkeys”.

3. To edit a shortcut double click on one of those Action or Hotkey.

4. A “Hotkey Change” option is displayed.

5. If the shortcut is already used up then a warning is displayed.

Different methods to uninstall programs from CentOS 8 ?

This article will guide you on methods to uninstall a #package using #Yum. You need to just type the package name with root privileges. Moreover, we have also seen how to remove a single package, multiple, and group by using the Yum package manager.

apt remove just removes the binaries of a package. 

It leaves residue configuration files. apt purge removes everything related to a package including the configuration files.

To uninstall a program in #Linux Mint terminal:

1. Uninstall software in Linux mint from the main menu.

2. Confirm that you want to #remove the package.

3. Open the Software Manager.

4. Search for a program to remove using the software manager.

5. Remove software in Linux #Mint using the software manager.

6. Open Synaptic package manager.

Methods to uninstall programs from Debian 10 ?

This article will guide you on how to uninstall programs from Debian 10. The first method can be used if you prefer #GUI over #CLI. The second method can be used if you only intend to delete a program without its configuration files. The third mthod can be used if you intend to delete a program along with all of its configuration files. Finally, the fourth mthod can be used if you want to get rid of all the unused packages and dependencies altogether.

Whenever you add a repository using "add-apt-repository" command, it will be stored in /etc/apt/sources. list file. 

To delete a software repository from Ubuntu and its derivatives, just open the /etc/apt/sources. list file and look for the repository entry and delete it.

Running sudo apt-get update (or sudo aptitude update ) updates this on your local system. This is the step that actually retrieves information about what packages can be installed, including what updates to currently installed packages packages are available, from Internet sources.

To Uninstall Programs on #Debian:

1. Go to the Installed tab. 

2. It will list all the installed #applications in your system. 

3. From the list, search for the application you want to #uninstall and click the Remove button in front of it. 

4. When you click the Remove button, the following message will appear for you to confirm the decision.

Step by step process to install and configure HAproxy on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS ?

This article will guide you on how to #install and configure #HAproxy load balancer on the #Linux system. 

You will learn the basic setup and configuration of HAproxy as a load balancer for #Apache web servers. Also, we looked at some commands for managing the HAproxy server. In the end, we tested the load balancing through the browser and the #curl command. 

HAProxy is free, open source #software that provides a high availability #load #balancer and proxy server for #TCP and HTTP-based applications that spreads requests across multiple servers.

To Deploy on Linux :

1. Download the source code of HAProxy.

2. Unzip the file into the desired location tar xvzf haproxy-1.8-dev1.

3. Compile the source code.

4. Create config file haproxy.cfg with the configuration details.

5. Start the haproxy with ./haproxy -f haproxy.

6. Access the status page on http:localhost:9999/stats.

Methods to uninstall programs from Ubuntu 20.04 LTS ?

This article will guide you on different methods to uninstall a #program from your Ubuntu 20.04 #system. You can #unininstall a package via a graphical #software manager and also through the command line. 

You can safely use sudo apt-get remove --purge application or sudo apt-get remove applications. When you use the purge flag, it simply removes all config files too.

To remove packages from Ubuntu system:

1. Click on the Ubuntu Software icon in the Activities toolbar; this will open the Ubuntu Software manager through which you can search for, install and uninstall software from your computer. 

2. From the list of #applications, look up for the one you want to uninstall and then click the Remove button against it.

Step by step process to install the latest Sublime Text editor on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS ?

This article will guide you on how to #install #Sublime Text code editor on Ubuntu 20.04 using both the #command line and the #Ubuntu #Software Center.

All Ubuntu versions have Snap enabled by default. This means you can install Notepad++ on Ubuntu from the Software Center. Once the installation completes, you can launch it from the search or by typing notepad-plus-plus into the terminal.

Sublime Text Editor is cross-platform, you can use it in #Linux, #Windows or Mac systems.

How to make documents read-only in Google Drive ?

This article will guide you on how to make a #Google #Drive #document read-only for yourself or for others by using any of the two methods that are suggested here. These #methods can be used with equal ease both by the experts as well as the naïve users since they are extremely simple to follow. To make a Google Drive folder not read only: 1. Open your Drive. 2. Click "new". 3. Select "folder". 4. Name your folder. 5. Select your folder by "single clicking" it. 6. Adjust your sharing settings by selecting the sharing icon. 7. Select "get shareable link". 8. Then copy and paste the link that is highlighted. Share this link with anyone you would like to have access to the folder.

Steps to set up FFmpeg on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS ?

This article will guide you on steps to #install #FFmpeg on your Ubuntu 20.04 system and can use it for #video and #audio editing and #conversions from one format to another. FFmpeg is a vast and powerful collection of video and audio processing tools. Once you know the #command syntax, you can use it to manipulate video and audio files in basically any way that you can imagine. See the official documentation at FFmpeg's website https://www.ffmpeg.org/documentation.html to see everything it can do. To install FFmpeg on #Ubuntu: 1. Start by updating the packages list: sudo apt update. 2. Next, install FFmpeg by typing the following command: sudo apt install ffmpeg. 3. To validate that the package is installed properly use the ffmpeg -version command which prints the FFmpeg version: ffmpeg -version.

Steps to install and use Python PIP tools on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS ?

This article will guide you on how to install Python PIP #tools on Ubuntu 20.04. Also, you learnt different commands which will help you in using the PIP tool. You can search, install and remove #packages by using the pip utility. Steps to Install Python #PIP Tool on #Ubuntu 20.04: 1. Update Your #APT. As always, first, update and upgrade your APT. 2. Add Universe #Repository. 3. Install PIP for Python 3. 4. Verify Installation. 5. Replace Keyword. 6. Install #Python Package. 7. Uninstall Excess Tools. 8. Additional #Commands.

Complete guide on how to modify Hostname on Ubuntu 20.04

This article will guide you on how to change your Ubuntu server hostname without restarting the system.

How to configure DNS Server on CentOS 8?

Here, you will learn how to install and configure a DNS Server on CentOS 8 machine.