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Install PHP 8 on Debian 10 / Debian 9 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install PHP 8 on any Linux distribution.


To install Apache with PHP 8 module:

$ sudo apt install apache2 libapache2-mod-php8.0 

After successful installation, restart Apache service to reload newly installed modules:

$ sudo systemctl restart apache2 


To check loaded PHP modules use the command:

$ php -m

Nagios mysql_error out of range value for column - Fix it now ?

This article covers Nagios error, mysql_error out of range value for column which is evident in the /var/log/messages file on the Nagios XI server.

To resolve this issue you will need to define the SQL Mode in the MySQL / MariaDB my.cnf configuration file:

1. Locate the [mysqld] section and check to see if there is an sql_mode already defined:

[mysqld]
# Recommended in standard MySQL setup
sql_mode=NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION,STRICT_TRANS_TABLES

2. If the sql_mode= line already exists you will need to replace it with the following. 

If the line does not exist you will need to add the following line:

[mysqld]
sql_mode=""

Can't connect to mysql error 111 - Fix this error now ?

This article covers methods to fix mysql error, 'Can't connect to mysql error 111' on Linux machine for our customers.
This can happen when there was a host IP change. 

This issue can prevent connection to the database.
As it turned out if you do come accross this look in /etc/my.cnf, there is a line:

bind-address = ip.add.ress

This may be the old address for the server and this will stop connections, change this to your new address and restart MySQL/MariaDB and you should be good again.

SQL Server Error 9002 - Fix it now

This article covers methods to resolve SQL Server Error 9002 for our customers. SQL Server Error 9002 happens when the SQL Transaction Log file becomes full or indicated the database is running out of space. A transaction log file increases until the log file utilizes all the available space in disk. A quick fix is to create more space for log file.


To Fix SQL Server Error 9002:


1. Backup Transaction Log File

Incase, SQL database that you are using is full or out of space, you should free the space. For this purpose, it is needed to create a backup of transaction log file immediately. Once the backup is created, the transaction log is truncated. If you do not take back up of log files, you can also use full or Bulk-Logged Recovery model to simple recovery model.


2. Free Disk Space

Generally, the transaction Log file is saved on the disk drive. So, you can free the disk space which contains Log file by deleting or moving other files on order to create some new space in the drive. The free space on disk will allow users to perform other task and resolve SQL Error Log 9002 The Transaction Log for Database is Full.


3. Move Log File to a Different Disk

If you are not able to free the space on a disk drive, then another option is to transfer the log file into a different disk. Make sure another disk in which you are going to transfer your log file, has enough space.

i. Execute sp_detach_db command to detach the database.

ii. Transfer the transaction log files to another disk.

iii. Now, attach the SQL database by running sp_attach_db command.


4. Enlarge Log File

If the sufficient space is available on the disk then you should increase the size of your log file. Because, the maximum size for a log file is considered as 2 TB per .ldf file.


To enlarge log file, there is an Autogrow option but if it is disabled, then you need to manually increase the log file size.

i. To increase log file size, you need to use the MODIFY FILE clause in ALTER DATABASE statement. Then define the particular SIZE and MAXSIZE.

ii. You can also add the log file to the specific SQL database. For this, use ADD FILE clause in ALTER DATABASE statement.

Then, add an additional .ldf file which allows to increase the log file.

Recover orphan innodb database from ibd file - How to perform this task

This article covers how to recover the orphan InnoDB database from the ibd file. 


Orphan InnoDB database incident mostly happened when:

1 – user accidentally remove ibdata1 file. (mostly in /var/lib/mysql/ibdata1).

2 – ibdata file courrupted.


To Recover Orphaned InnoDB Tables:

1. Restart the MySQL service to recreate ibdata1, then take a backup of your database folder.

2. Login to MySQL.

3. Create a dummy database with the same name. Then, create a dummy table with the same name as the corrupted one (don’t mind the table structure for now).

4. Stop the MySQL service, copy the .frm file from the backup you took to replace the .frm file.

5. Start MySQL and have a look at the structure of your table - it should now be in place! However, don’t get too happy yet.

6. Issue a SHOW CREATE TABLE statement and copy its contents, then create the table with them.

7. Stop MySQL, copy the .ibd file from the backup directory to /var/lib/database_name and replace the existing .ibd file from the dummy table.

8. Now it’s time for Percona’s tools to shine - download and install the Percona Data Recovery Tool for InnoDB , then run the following (here -o represents the full location of your ibdata1 file, -f represents the full location of your .ibd file, -d represents the database name and -t represents your table name):

ibdconnect -o /var/lib/mysql/ibdata1 -f /var/lib/mysql/database_name/table_name.ibd -d database_name -t table_name

9. Now, run a checksum check against InnoDB - make sure you get no error messages (you might need to run this tool several times):

innochecksum /var/lib/mysql/ibdata1

10. Finally, you should be good to go - simply start MySQL.

Event Data getting Stale in Nagios - Resolve it Now

This article covers methods to fix Event Data getting Stale in Nagios. Basically, you will see the causes for event data getting stale in Nagios. There is a known bug relating to event data in versions 2009R1.4B-2011R1.1.

This bug has been patched and will be available in releases later than the versions posted above, but if you're experiencing this error, and/or the nagios service is taking an excessively long time to start, you may have a corrupted mysql table that needs repair.


To fix this Nagios error:

1. Stop the following services:

$ service nagios stop
$ service ndo2db stop
$ service mysqld stop

2. Run the repair script for mysql tables:

/usr/local/nagiosxi/scripts/repairmysql.sh nagios

3. Unzip and copy the the following dbmaint file to /usr/local/nagiosxi/cron/. This will overwrite the previous version.

$ cd /tmp
$ wget http://assets.nagios.com/downloads/nagiosxi/patches/dbmaint.zip
$ unzip dbmaint.zip
$ chmod +x dbmaint.php
$ cp dbmaint.php /usr/local/nagiosxi/cron

Unable to add MySQL database in Plesk Customer Panel - Fix it now

This article covers how to fix issues that make it unable to add MySQL database in Plesk customer panel.


To resolve Cannot add MySQL database in Plesk Customer Panel:

1. Log in to Plesk and apply one of the following:

2. Enable Database server selection directive in Service Plans > Default > Permissions > Show more available permissions and press Update & Sync.

3. Switch MySQL default database server from None to localhost:3306 in Service Plans > Default > Hosting Parameters > Default Database Server and press Update & Sync.


Note:  it is also applicable to cases when Amazon RDS extension is installed. 

If it is needed to provide customer with the ability to select Amazon server, enable "database server selection" option.


How do I add a database to my Plesk Panel?

How to Create a New Database or Database User in the Plesk Control Panel

1. Log into your Control Panel.

2. Click on Databases.

3. Click on the Add New Database icon.

4. Next to Database Name enter the name you want to use.

For Type, choose either Microsoft SQL Server or MySQL (DNN uses the Microsoft SQL Server.).

Add MySQL database in Websitepanel and fix common errors

This article covers add MySQL database in Websitepanel and fix a common errors related to this task.

A database interface allows you to create and manage the existing MySQL databases. If you are creating a PHP based application or any application that uses a database, then you will need to create a database and a database user to access this database.


To create a MySQL database in WebsitePanel:

1. Click on the plan you want to add a MySQL database to.

2. Then click Databases.

3. Click MySQL.

4. Click Create Database.

5. Enter a name for your database.

6. Click Save.

7. You can click on the database you just added to edit it.

8. You can view existing users or delete or backup the database.

9. Click Save when you are finished


Success! You can view your added databases and see how many allowed databases you've used.

Add MySQL Service on WebsitePanel - Do it now

This article covers how to add MySQL service in websitepanel. 

WebsitePanel began as DotNetPanel, which its creators made only for the Windows web technology platform as a Windows hosting panel.


To add MySQL Service on WebsitePanel, follow the steps provided below:

1. Download the installation file from here. Choose to skip registration and start the download.

2. Run the .msi file to start the installation. Click “Next” when prompted.

3. Select the product to upgrade, then click “Next“.

4. Click “Execute” to apply the update.

5. Click “Next” to configure the product.

6. If you already have a database within your server, the installer will check and update your database. Type in the correct password and then press “Check“, then press “Next” when the connection is successful.

7. Click “Execute” to apply the configuration, then “Next” to finish this part of the installation.

8. Click “Next” to proceed.

9. The installation is completed, click “Finish” to continue.

10. This shows the product you have installed, you can close the installer here or click “Add…” to install additional products such as MySQL Server ver 5.7

11. Select the “CONFIGURATION” tab and click “Servers” from the drop-down list.

12. Next, click on “My Server“, scroll down and search for “MySQL 5” tab (since we have installed MySQL 5.5 by default).

13. Click on the small “Add” besides the “MySQL 5” tab to add MySQL service to WebsitePanel.

14. From the drop-down list, choose the version of MySQL that had been installed (MySQL Server 5.5 in our case), then click "Add Service".

15. You will see a message saying that installation of  MySQL Connector/Net is required, follow the instructions and download the installer.

16. Run the downloaded installer but DO NOT choose “Typical Installation“, choose “Custom Installation” instead and remove the entire “Web Providers” section from your installation as it will give a nasty error after installation. Proceed with the installation by clicking “Next” and then “Install“.

17. Return to the MySQL Service Properties page, fill in the password with the password used to login to MySQL root account and then click “Update” at the bottom of the page. If the password entered is correct, the MySQL service will be successfully added to the list of server services.

Install Drupal with Docker Compose

This article covers how to install Drupal with Docker Compose. Basically, installation process of Drupal can be simplified with the use of tools like Docker and Docker Compose. Docker Compose can be used to create a Drupal installation with an Nginx web server. 


Drupal and Docker needs the following to work:

1. HTTP Server with PHP: We can either use Apache with PHP or Nginx with PHP. I'm going to demonstrate building the Docker using Apache with PHP. A Drupal docker can also have services like SSH (for drush alias to work) and some important utilities like vim

2. SQL Server: Choose your favourite SQL Service (MySQL or PostGRESQL or SQLite). I'm going to be using a MySQL docker. The idea behind using a separate docker for SQL is so that you have a freedom to choose an internal SQL service or an external SQL Services like Amazon RDS without affecting your Drupal environment.


The need to Use Docker to Run Drupal:

Using the Drupal and PostgreSQL images from Docker Hub offers the following benefits:

1. The configuration of the software has been done for you, which means that you don’t need to follow a step-by-step process for each application to get them running on your system.

2. Updating your software is as simple as downloading the latest images from Docker Hub.

3. Images and containers are self-contained, which means that they are easy to clean up if you decide to remove them.


How to Set Up Drupal ?

1. Create a new directory in your home folder called my_drupal and cd into it:

mkdir ~/my_drupal/

cd ~/my_drupal/

2. Create a file named docker-compose.yml in this folder and add the following contents. Set your own password for the POSTGRES_PASSWORD option.

3. From the my_drupal directory, start your Docker containers:

docker-compose up -d

4. The Docker containers will take a minute or two to start up Drupal and PostgreSQL. Afterwards, you can visit your Linode’s IP address in your web browser .

5. On the Set up database page, select PostgreSQL as the Database type and enter the following values:

Database name: postgres

Database username: postgres

Database password: The password you set in the docker-compose.yml file

Host (under Advanced Options): postgres

6. When creating your Drupal user, be sure to enter a password that is different from your PostgreSQL password.

MySQL crash – Causes Recovery and Prevention methods

This article covers methods to fix and prevent MySQL downtime. Basically, many issues such as resource limits, #database table errors, file system errors, and so on, can lead to a MySQL crash.


To fix MySQL errors in cPanel?

You can also restart the MySQL service from WHM.

1. Login to WHM.

2. Navigate to Restart Services.

3. Now you can restart the MySQL service by clicking the icon “SQL Server(MySQL)”.


To use mysqlcheck, follow these steps:

1. As the root user, type the following command: cd /var/lib/mysql.

2. Replace the database with the name of the database that you want to check.

3. Mysqlcheck checks the specified database and tables.


How do I know if MySQL is running?

We check the status with the service mysql status command. We use the mysqladmin tool to check if MySQL server is running. 

The -u option specifies the user which pings the server. 

The -p option is a password for the user.


What does repair table do MySQL?

REPAIR TABLE repairs a possibly corrupted table, for certain storage engines only. 

This statement requires SELECT and INSERT privileges for the table. Although normally you should never have to run REPAIR TABLE , if disaster strikes, this statement is very likely to get back all your data from a MyISAM table.


What causes MySQL #tables to crash?

The major cause of the database corruption is the lack of free disk space on the server.

Other possible causes of MySQL table crashes include operating system problems, power failures, hardware issues, unexpected MySQL server termination, data corruption due to external programs, and so on.


To access your #MySQL database in Linux, please follow these steps:

1. Log into your Linux web server via Secure Shell.

2. Open the MySQL client program on the server in the /usr/bin directory.

3. Type in the following syntax to access your database: $ mysql -h {hostname} -u username -p {databasename} Password: {your password}

Methods to secure database server - Best Practices

This article covers different methods to secure a Database Server. Database security helps: Company's block attacks, including ransomware and breached firewalls, which in turn keeps sensitive information safe. It Prevent malware or viral infections which can corrupt data, bring down a network, and spread to all end point devices.


SQL injection vulnerabilities occur when application code contains dynamic database queries which directly include user supplied input. 

This is a devastating form of attack and BSI Penetration Testers regularly find vulnerable applications that allow complete authentication bypass and extraction of the entire database.

SQL injection, also known as SQLI, is a common attack vector that uses malicious SQL code for backend database manipulation to access information that was not intended to be displayed. 

This information may include any number of items, including sensitive company data, user lists or private customer details.


Some known database security issues:

Security risks to database systems include,

1. Data corruption and/or loss caused by the entry of invalid data or commands

2. Mistakes in database or system administration processes, sabotage/criminal damage and so on.


There are numerous types of databases and many different ways to hack them, but most hackers will either try to crack the database root password or run a known database exploit. 

If you're comfortable with SQL statements and understand database basics, you can hack a database.


Practices for Database Security:

1. Protect Against Attacks With a Database Proxy.

2. Set Up Auditing and Robust Logging.

3. Practice Stringent User Account Management.

4. Keep Your Database Software and OS Up-to-Date.

5. Encrypt Sensitive Data in Your app, in Transit, and at Rest.

Migrate database from MySQL to PostgreSQL using pgLoader

This article covers how to migrate a database using pgLoader with a single #command.
PostgreSQL, also known as “Postgres,” is an open-source relational database management system (RDBMS).
It has seen a drastic growth in popularity in recent years, with many developers and companies migrating their data to Postgres from other database solutions.
The prospect of migrating a database can be intimidating, especially when migrating from one database management system to another.

Facts about pgLoader:
1. pgLoader is an open-source #database migration tool that aims to simplify the process of migrating to #PostgreSQL.
2. It supports #migrations from several file types and RBDMSs — including #MySQL and SQLite — to PostgreSQL.
3. #pgLoader is a flexible tool that can perform a database migration in a single command.
4. With a few configuration tweaks, it can migrate an entire database from one physical machine to another using a secure SSL/TLS connection.

MySQL error 1819 HY000

This article will guide you on how to resolve MySQL error 1819 (HY000) which happens when creating a MySQL user with a relatively weak password.  

Because of validate_password_policy we applied on database, we are not able to change and assign simple or weak passwords it don't allow to to change password and came up with error.

To resolve this error, We can check validate_password_policy applied on machine. Also you can change your password under Low policy.


Solution to MySQL Error Your Password does not satisfy the Current Policy Requirements:

1. Set the Password_policy value to low, next is setting the same Password_Policy value in my.cnf file and the last is uninstalling the plugin that is used for validating password.

2. Set the Password_Policy to low:

Default Password level of plugin can be changed at runtime or using config file. 

To do this, default authentication plugin has to be checked:

SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'default authentication plugin';

3. For checking the current variables for validating the password you should run the following command:

SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'validate_password%';

4. Validate_password is a variable that is used to inform the server about the validate_password plugin. 

This plugin tests the passwords and improve security. 

Following output will be displayed, if you run the above command:

mysql> SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'validate_password%';

InnoDB vs MyISAM Performance

This article will guide you on the performance of InnoDB and MyISAM. MyISAM will out-perform InnoDB on large #tables that require vastly more read activity versus write activity. MyISAM's readabilities outshine InnoDB because locking the entire table is quicker than figuring out which rows are locked in the table.

InnoDB is better option while you are dealing with larger #database because it supports transactions, volume while MyISAM is suitable for small project. 

InnoDB and MYISAM , are storage engines for MySQL . 


InnoDB and #MYISAM differ on their locking implementation: 

i. #InnoDB locks the particular row in the table, and MyISAM locks the entire MySQL table.

ii. As InnoDB supports row-level locking which means inserting and updating is much faster as compared with MyISAM.


Which storage engine is best in #MySQL:

1. InnoDB: The default option in MySQL 5.7, InnoDB is a robust storage engine that offers:

2. MyISAM: The functionality that sets MyISAM apart is its capability for:

3. NDB (or NDBCLUSTER): If a clustered environment is where your database will be working, NDB is the storage engine of choice.

Deploy PHP application with Kubernetes on Ubuntu

This article will guide you on steps to deploy #PHP application with Kubernetes on #Ubuntu. 

Kubernetes, at its basic level, is a system for running and coordinating containerized applications across a cluster of machines. 

It is a platform designed to completely manage the life cycle of containerized applications and services using methods that provide predictability, scalability, and high availability.

#Kubernetes really shines when your #application consists of multiple services running in different containers.

Kubernetes, also referred to as K8s, is an open source system used to manage Linux Containers across private, public and hybrid cloud environments. 

In other words, Kubernetes can be used to manage microservice architectures and is deployable on most cloud providers.

Zabbix Postgres vs MySQL

This article will help you give you more informations about #Zabbix Postgres vs MySQL and the criteria to choose between them. 

PostgreSQL is an Object Relational #Database Management System (#ORDBMS) whereas MySQL is a community driven DBMS system. PostgreSQL support modern applications feature like #JSON, XML etc. while MySQL only supports JSON.

PostgreSQL supports Materialized Views whereas #MySQL doesn't supports Materialized Views.

#PostgreSQL is known to be faster while handling massive data sets, complicated queries, and read-write operations. 

Meanwhile, MySQL is known to be faster with read-only commands.

Advantages Of Using MySQL:

1. It's Easy To Use.

2. Support Is Readily Available Whenever Necessary.

3. It's Open-Source.

4. It's Incredibly Inexpensive.

5. It's An Industry Standard.

6. It's Got A Few Stability Issues.

7. It Suffers From Relatively Poor Performance Scaling.

MySQL is not running

This article will guide you on methods to resolve MySQL #error 'MySQL is not running'. Basically, this MySQL error occurs due to many reasons that include stopping MySQL improperly, tables crashing and so on. 

Both MySQL and #Microsoft SQL Server (MSSQL) are widely used enterprise database systems. MySQL is an open-source relational #database management system (RDBMS), while MSSQL Server is a Microsoft-developed RDBMS. 

Enterprises can choose between multiple #MSSQL Server editions to suit their individual needs and budgets.

Why #MySQL is not opening?

1. You can also check the MySQL service is running in background or not. 

2. To do that open Task manager ( Press CTRL + SHIFT + ESC simultaneously ) and look for mysqld service in background process section. 

3. If it isn't listed there then the service is stopped or disabled.

Galera cluster asynchronous replication

This article will guide you on steps to perform Galera cluster asynchronous replication for #MySQL.  Galera Cluster for MySQL is a true Multi-Master Cluster based on synchronous replication. It's an easy-to-use, high-availability solution, which provides high system up-time, no data loss and scalability for future growth.

To do you get a Galera Cluster:

1. Create a #Cloud Server. First, log in to your Cloud Server via an SSH tool such as putty.

2. Install #MariaDB Server on All Servers.

3. Configure Each Server in the #Cluster.

4. Initialize the Galera Cluster.

5. Test Galera Cluster #Replication.

cPanel MySQL error query PHP

This article will guide you on methods to fix cPanel MySQL #error query #PHP. Generally, the MySQL error query PHP is mainly related to the PHP file. This can be either caused due to incorrect database details in the PHP file or incorrect permissions or incorrect ownership in files. 

To fix this issue:

1. Update to the latest version of #MySQL to resolve the issue. 

For some, this may require removing yum version locks on the MariaDB packages.

If packages are locked for #MariaDB clear the lock with the below command:

yum versionlock clear

Otherwise, proceed with the updates for MariaDB:

yum upgrade MariaDB-*

Wildcards in SQL Server

This article will guide to use #Wildcards in #SQL server. Also you will learn how to use and escape wildcards SQL-based databases. 

To use a wildcard character within a pattern: Open your #query in Design view. In the Criteria row of the field that you want to use, type the #operator Like in front of your criteria. Replace one or more characters in the criteria with a wildcard character.

i. The wildcard is an advanced search technique that can be used to maximize your search results in library databases. 

ii. Wildcards are used in search terms to represent one or more other characters. 

iii. The two most commonly used wildcards are: An asterisk (*) may be used to specify any number of #characters.

Executing queries from the MySQL Command Line

This article will guide you on how to run queries from the 3MySQL command line. The MySQL #Command Line Tool is a useful way to run #queries from the command line. It’s easy to run select queries and display the results in either a horizontal or vertical format, and the queries run are kept in a history file which you can navigate through. 

If you don't want to run a particular query after all you can use the c command to clear it.

The most common way to get a list of the MySQL #databases is by using the mysql client to connect to the MySQL server and run the SHOW DATABASES command. If you haven't set a password for your MySQL user you can omit the -p switch.

To Connect to a MySQL Database:

1. Click Services tab.

2. Expand the Drivers node from the Database Explorer.

3. Enter User Name and Password.

4. Click OK to accept the credentials.

5. Click OK to accept the default schema.

6. Right-click the MySQL Database #URL in the Services window.

New files of configuration for Apache error in Plesk

This article will guide you on methods to fix the Plesk error : new files of configuration for Apache.
The causes of this Plesk error:
1. Mailman package is not installed.
2. Database related error.
3. PHP memory issue.
To fix this Plesk issue:
Mailman package is not installed
When you try to reconfigure the domain, you will get the following error.
# /usr/local/psa/admin/sbin/httpdmng --reconfigure-all
No valid mailman bindir detected
So, in this case it is clear that the issue is causing because the mailman package is missing.
To fix the issue, you can follow the steps mentioned below.
a) Download and install the mailman package from  http://autoinstall.plesk.com
b) After that remove all entries from the ‘Configurations’ table of the ‘psa’ database.
mysql -uadmin -p`cat /etc/psa/.psa.shadow` psa -e"delete from Configurations"
c) Remove all ‘Include’ records from configuration files and all content from the directory below:
# sed -i /Include/d /usr/local/psa/admin/conf/ip_vhosts_bootstrap.conf&& sed -i /Include/d /usr/local/psa/admin/conf/vhosts_bootstrap.conf&& sed -i /include/d /usr/local/psa/admin/conf/nginx_vhosts_bootstrap.conf&& sed -i /Include/d /usr/local/psa/admin/conf/webmail_horde_bootstrap.conf&& sed -i /Include/d /usr/local/psa/admin/conf/webmail_atmail_bootstrap.conf&& sed -i /Include/d /etc/httpd/conf.d/zz010_psa_httpd.conf&& rm -f /usr/local/psa/admin/conf/generated/*
d) Now you can reconfigure and that will fix the issues.
/usr/local/psa/admin/bin/httpdmng --reconfigure-all
This will resolve the error.

MySQL BLOB Data Type

This article will guide you on how #MySQL #BLOB data type works in storing and displaying images with #PHP on Ubuntu 18.04. A BLOB is a binary large object that can hold a variable amount of data.
A Binary Large OBject (BLOB) is a collection of #binary data stored as a single entity in a database management system. Blobs are typically images, audio or other multimedia objects, though sometimes binary executable code is stored as a blob.
The four BLOB types are #TINYBLOB , #BLOB , #MEDIUMBLOB , and #LONGBLOB . These differ only in the maximum length of the values they can hold. The four TEXT types are TINYTEXT , TEXT , MEDIUMTEXT , and LONGTEXT .
The size of blob in MySQL:
TINYBLOB - Up to 255 bytes - 1 byte
BLOB - Up to 64 Kb - 2 bytes
MEDIUMBLOB - Up to 16 Mb - 3 bytes
LONGBLOB - Up to 4 Gb - 1 Bytes

Setting up client access over private IP address to MySQL on Compute Engine

This article will guide you on setting up client access over private IP address to #MySQL on #Compute #Engine helps advanced usage of parameters and specific performance needs.

To allow IP to connect to MySQL:

1. Edit MySQL Config File. 1.1 Access mysqld.cnf File. 

2. Set up Firewall to Allow Remote MySQL Connection. While editing the configuration file, you probably observed that the default MySQL port is 3306. 

3. Connect to Remote MySQL #Server. Your remote server is now ready to accept connections.

Redis as a Cache for MySQL with PHP on Ubuntu

This article will guide you on steps to use #Redis to cache #MySQL data with #PHP on #Ubuntu 20.04.  Redis, which stands for Remote Dictionary Server, is a fast, open-source, in-memory key-value data store for use as a database, cache, message broker, and queue. 

To Connect to Redis through the SQL Gateway:

1. In MySQL Workbench, click to add a new MySQL connection.

2. Name the connection (CData SQL Gateway for Redis).

3. Set the Hostname, Port, and Username parameters to connect to the #SQL Gateway.

4. Click Store in Vault to set and store the password.

Steps to install MySQL in Docker Container

This article will guide you on the steps to install and configure #MySQL in #Docker #container. MySQL is a well-known open-source relational #database management system and one of the most popular web server solutions. It stores and structures data in a meaningful manner, ensuring easy accessibility. Setting up a database in Docker is simply building a container based on a MySQL #image. 

To Set Up & Configure a MySQL Docker Container:

1. Running a MySQL Docker Container.

2. Installing a MySQL Docker Container.

i. Pull the MySQL Docker Image.

ii. Deploy the MySQL Container.

iii. Connect to the MySQL Docker Container.

3. Configure MySQL Container. Manage #Data Storage.

4. Start, Stop, and Restart MySQL Container.

5. Delete MySQL Container.

Set Up Laravel Nginx and MySQL with Docker Compose

This article will guide you on how to set up #Laravel, #Nginx, and #MySQL with #Docker Compose. When using a #LEMP application stack, for example, with PHP, Nginx, MySQL and the Laravel framework, Docker can significantly streamline the setup process.
Docker Compose has further simplified the development process by allowing developers to define their #infrastructure, including application services, #networks, and volumes, in a single file. Docker Compose offers an efficient alternative to running multiple docker container create and docker container run #commands.

Using Kill Commands In Linux

This article will guide you on how to use Kill #Commands In #Linux. Here, you will learn several ways to #terminate a running process. However, one should exercise caution to prevent incorrectly terminating a #process that should not be killed.
The #kill -9 command sends a SIGKILL signal indicating to a service to shut down immediately. An unresponsive program will ignore a kill command, but it will shut down whenever a kill -9 command is issued.

SQL server error 40 Tips to fix it

This article will guide you on the steps to fix #SQL Server Error 40 which is related to TCP/IP connection or Named Pipes connections. To avoid these types of errors use dynamic #ports when database engines have been configured

Setup and use Microsoft SQL Server Management Studio

This article will guide you on the steps to  set up #SQL server management #studio which is a free #Windows application to configure, manage, and administer #Microsoft SQL Server (#MSSQL).

Crashed Database Tables in Nagios XI

This article will guide you through the steps to fix Crashed #Database #Tables in #Nagios which occurs if the #MySQL process appears to be consuming large amounts of #CPU.

Repair corrupt sql bak file

This guide will help to repair corrupt sql .bak file when it comes to cases where you need to perform a data disaster prevention by means of database backup.

Using Ansible to copy MySQL databases

This article will guide us on how to perform database migration using Ansible as the controller which can help to copy a MySQL database from one remote server to another.

Xampp MySQL shutdown unexpectedly error

This tutorial will help to fix MySQL shutdown unexpectedly which occurs as a result of server-side errors such as missing configuration, corrupted file, port changes, and improper shutdown.

Steps to sync two Apache web servers

This article will guide you on how to setup syncing Apache web servers which involves a number of procedures such as installation and configuration of LSyncD, setting up Apache Configuration Replication, and so on.

SQL error Msg 3266

This article will help you to solve SQL error Msg 3266 which occurs when database backups job fails when the filemark in the backup device cannot be read. 

Recovering a database from suspect mode in SQL

This article will guide you through the process of repairing  a database which is in Suspect mode in SQL by performing consistency check on database in emergency mode and executing ALLOW DATA LOSS in single user mode.

Doing page level restore in SQL server

Best way to perform page level restore in SQL server.

Solution to error sql72045

How to fix error sql72045 as soon as possible.

Solve SQL server error 7416

Most sql users discover that the logins which they used before suddenly develops server error 7416.

Solve SQL Error 15421

We have dealt with numerous cases of SQL issues for our customers as part of our Server Support Services.

Solve phpMyAdmin Timeout error 1440 session

We have dealt with numerous cases of MySQL and phpMyAdmin Errors and support request from our customers regarding Databases related errors as part of our Linux Support Services.

Fix SQL server error 3023

Most databases users experience error 3023 when doing a backup, or altering the database table. It simply means that a backup process is still running in the background and thus any interruption will trigger this error.

Solve SQL Server error 4064

The SQL Server error 4064 is as a result of the unavailability of a database probably due to dropping of the database thereby becoming not available to the user.

Solve SQL server error 3729

Recently, we have seen rising cases of SQL related issues which our Server Experts have provided support in solving them.

Fix Microsoft SQL error 1032

Here at IbmiMedia, we have seen numerous cases of SQL related errors and provide fixes to these kind of issues as part of our Linux Support Services.

Fix MySQL Error 1292

When the syntax for the data is not entered correctly, an Error 1292 will be triggered in MySQL.

We have helped numerous clients to resolve this error and also solved SQL related issues as part of our Server Support Services.

How to fix Horde Fatal Error

Fatal Error in Horde Webmail is experienced by most users when they are about logging into their Email.

Fix MySQL error code 1054

MySQL error code 1054 occurs when you forget to add single quotes while inserting a varchar value or due to any missing column.

Errors in the database of a website can be very frustrating especially if you have got a high traffic website and it leads to loss of customers and money as your they will turn away from your site since this type of errors affects the whole website in general.

Fix Moodle Error reading from database Bugs

When an incorrect value is entered as the Storage engine value in a MySQL file in a Moodle Learning system, a "Moodle Error reading from the database" is be triggered.

Method to upgrade MySQL in VestaCP

It is very important to upgrade your OS MySQL database to the latest version so as to keep the system more secured and to enjoy the latest features.

Install LAMP in Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install LAMP on Ubuntu 20.04 and run the Apache module of the PHP. In fact, PHP code can be executed via the Apache web server; PHP module of Apache and PHP-FPM.

Different methods of Checking MySQL Version in Linux

This article covers the ways to check the MySQL version in Linux. In fact, MySQL (and its drop-in replacement MariaDB) is the most popular open-source relational database management system. There are some important differences between MySQL versions, so knowing which version is running on your server might be important in some situations.


How to Check MySQL Version with V Command ?

The easiest way to find the MySQL version is with the command:

$ mysql -V

The command mysql –V is not OS specific. This command works on Windows, OS X, and Linux distributions including Ubuntu.

Install and Use MySQL Workbench on Fedora 35 / 34 / 33 / 32 - Step by step guide

This article covers how to easily manage your SQL databases using MySQL workbench on Fedora. In fact, the MySQL Workbench on Fedora or REHL allows the database managers, developers or DB architects to visually design the Database. It features Database Connection & Instance Management, SQL Editor, Visual EXPLAIN, SQL snippets collections, SSH connection tunneling, Unicode support, Data modeling, ER diagramming, Drag n Drop visual modeling, Database administration, Database account management, Performance monitoring, Performance Schema metrics, MySQL instance dashboard, Database migration, and more.

Install LAMP Stack on AlmaLinux 8 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install LAMP (Apache, MariaDB, and PHP) Stack on your AlmaLinux 8 system. In fact, LAMP compromises a web server ( Apache ), a database server ( MariaDB or MySQL ), and the PHP scripting language which supports dynamic web pages written in PHP. 

Install MySQL Workbench on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing MySQL Workbench on your Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, MySQL workbench is a GUI tool for managing MySQL database system used by database administrators, database architects and developers to visualize database design.


How to Download and Install MySQL Workbench on Ubuntu ?

1. Update and upgrade your system, before any installation:

$ sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade

2. Now you can download and install Workbench with the command:

$ sudo apt install mysql-workbench

Install and Use MyCLI in MySQL / MariaDB / Percona for Auto-Completion and Syntax Highlighting on Ubuntu 20.04 server

This article covers how to install and use the MyCLI tool on your Ubuntu Linux system. In fact, MyCLI is an easy-to-use command line interface (CLI) for MySQL, MariaDB, and Percona, that helps you speed up development with auto-completion and syntax highlighting features.


How to install the MyCLI tool on your Linux system ?

MyCLI tool is based on Python and needs to be installed via pip. Make sure PIP and python development libraries are installed.:

$ yum install python-pip
$ yum -y install python-devel
$ pip install mycli


MyCLI Features include:

  • Auto-completion as you type for SQL keywords as well as tables, views and columns in the database. Auto-completion is on by default. The REPL will pop up a suggestion menu as soon as you start typing. The suggestions are context sensitive based on the position of the cursor. eg: Only tables are suggested after the FROM keyword, only column names are suggested after the WHERE clause.
  • Syntax highlighting using Pygments. Syntax highlighting has plenty of themes that can be changed via the config file.
  • Smart-completion (enabled by default) will suggest context-sensitive completion.
  • SELECT * FROM <tab> will only show table names.
  • SELECT * FROM users WHERE <tab> will only show column names.
  • Support for multiline queries.
  • Favorite queries with optional positional parameters. Favorite Queries are a way to save frequently used queries with a short name. Save a query using \fs alias query and execute it with \f alias whenever you need.
  • Timing of sql statments and table rendering.
  • Config file is automatically created at ~/.myclirc at first launch.
  • Log every query and its results to a file (disabled by default).
  • Pretty prints tabular data (with colors).
  • Support for SSL connections.
  • There are two types of keybindings available. Emacs mode and Vi mode
  • Cross-platform support – runs under Linux and macOS. The software may run under Windows but this is not tested.

Install Percona Database Server on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing Percona Database Server on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, Percona Server is fully compatible and a replacement for Oracle MySQL. Percona Server is used by thousands of enterprises to provide superior performance, scalability, and instrumentation for their workloads.

Allow Remote Connections to MySQL - Best Method ?

This article covers how to allow remote connections to a MySQL server. Hosting databases and web servers on a separate database server can improve security, hardware performance, and enable you to scale resources quickly.

One of the most frequently observed database bottlenecks encountered by large projects is high MySQL traffic. Sure, we could talk about moving to a bigger cloud instance size, faster cores, and better storage, but that’s too obvious and costly. Instead, we would like to focus on several tips that can reduce traffic with a bit of configuration.


Methods to reduce Internet traffic when connecting to the remote host:

  • Disable and/or optimize the high-load features of your application.
  • Use ProxySQL to enable connection pooling. This will prevent your application from overloading MySQL with a multitude of concurrent connections. Another nice feature of ProxySQL helps cache query results for a certain period of time.
  • Monitor your databases for performance bottlenecks.
  • Identify and optimize queries that cause high load. If you use dbForge Studio for MySQL, you get a specialized tool—Query Profiler—which helps you deal with this task easily.
  • Add missing indexes and eliminate redundant and unused ones.
  • Conduct a thorough check of your background operations. Some of them can be postponed, some may work just as effectively with limited resources (e.g. limited concurrencies for batch jobs), and some may be perfectly running on replicas.

List Tables in a MySQL Database - Best Methods ?

This article covers how to get information of the tables in the MySQL database. The following illustrates the syntax of the MySQL SHOW TABLES command:

SHOW TABLES;

Install LAMP Stack on CentOS 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install the LAMP stack on the CentOS system. If are using another Linux distribution, visit how to install LAMP stack on Debian, Ubuntu, Red Hat, and Rocky Linux. Basically, A LAMP stack is a collection of open-source software that you can use as a platform to create websites and web applications. The term LAMP is an acronym standing for Linux operating system, the Apache HTTP Server, the MySQL database system, and the PHP programming language.


In LAMP:

  • Linux serves as the server's operating system that handles all the commands on the machine.
  • Apache is a web server software that manages HTTP requests to deliver your website's content.
  • MySQL is a relational database management system (RDBMS) whose function is to maintain user's data on a server.
  • PHP is a scripting language for server-side communication.

Install PHP 8.0 on Debian / Linux Mint - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install PHP 8.0 on Debian 10. To verify the installed version of PHP, use the php command below:

$ php -v


How to install PHP 7.x extensions ?

The following syntax is used to install PHP 7.x extensions:

$ sudo apt-get install php7.x-extension

or

$ sudo apt-get install php-extension


To install the most commonly used PHP 7.x extensions by running the command in the terminal:

for PHP 7.4,

$ sudo apt-get install php7.4-mysql php7.4-mbstring php7.4-xml php7.4-bcmath php7.4-curl php7.4-gd php7.4-zip

for PHP 7.3,

$ sudo apt-get install php7.3-mysql php7.3-mbstring php7.3-xml php7.3-bcmath php7.3-curl php7.3-gd php7.3-zip

for PHP 7.2,

$ sudo apt-get install php7.2-mysql php7.2-mbstring php7.2-xml php7.2-bcmath php7.2-curl php7.2-gd php7.2-zip

for PHP 7.1,

$ sudo apt-get install php7.1-mysql php7.1-mbstring php7.1-xml php7.1-bcmath php7.1-curl php7.1-gd php7.1-zip

for PHP 7.0,

$ sudo apt-get install php7.0-mysql php7.0-mbstring php7.0-xml php7.0-bcmath php7.0-curl php7.0-gd php7.0-zip

Install phpMyAdmin with Nginx on Ubuntu 18.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to Install phpMyAdmin with Nginx on Ubuntu 18.04 system. When developing a website or web application, many users need the functionality of a database system like MySQL. However, interacting with the system solely from the MySQL command-line client requires familiarity with Structured Query Language — more commonly referred to as SQL — which can present a major hurdle for some users. phpMyAdmin was created to allow users to interact with MySQL through an intuitive web interface, running alongside a PHP development environment. 


How to Secure phpMyAdmin with Let's Encrypt SSL ?

Before starting, you will need to install the Certbot client to download and install Let's Encrypt SSL.

1. First, add the Certbot repository with the following command:

$ add-apt-repository ppa:ahasenack/certbot-tlssni01-1875471

2. Next, update the repository and install the Certbot client using the following command:

$ apt-get update -y
$ apt-get install certbot python3-certbot-nginx -y

3. Once the Certbot has been installed, run the following command to download and install the Let's Encrypt SSL for your domain:

$ certbot --nginx -d phpmyadmin.domain.com

Install LAMP Stack on CentOS 7 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install LAMP stack on CentOS 7. LAMP is a stack of applications that work together on a web server to host a website. With that being said, each individual program serves a different purpose.

In LAMP: 

  • Linux serves as the server's operating system that handles all the commands on the machine.
  • Apache is a web server software that manages HTTP requests to deliver your website's content.
  • MySQL is a relational database management system (RDBMS) whose function is to maintain user's data on a server.
  • PHP is a scripting language for server-side communication.


To install Apache easily using CentOS's package manager, yum:

1. Run the command.

$ sudo yum install httpd

2. Once it installs, you can start Apache on your server.

$ sudo systemctl start httpd.service

3. You can do a spot check right away to verify that everything went as planned by visiting your server's public IP address in your web browser.

http://your_server_IP_address/


Important PHP Modules:

  • php-bcmath.x86_64 : A module for PHP applications for using the bcmath library.
  • php-cli.x86_64 : Command-line interface for PHP.
  • php-common.x86_64 : Common files for PHP.
  • php-dba.x86_64 : A database abstraction layer module for PHP applications.
  • php-devel.x86_64 : Files needed for building PHP extensions.
  • php-embedded.x86_64 : PHP library for embedding in applications.
  • php-enchant.x86_64 : Enchant spelling extension for PHP applications.
  • php-fpm.x86_64 : PHP FastCGI Process Manager.
  • php-gd.x86_64 : A module for PHP applications for using the gd graphics library.

Install MySQL on Debian 9 Stretch - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install mysql 8.0 and Secure MySQL on Debian 9 server. MySQL, the world's most popular open-source relational database management system is not available in the default Debian's repositories. MariaDB is the default database system in Debian 10. 

The MySQL APT repository provides a simple and convenient way to install and update MySQL products with the latest software packages using Apt. The MySQL APT repository provides MySQL packages for the following Linux distros: Debian.


How to Uninstall MySQL from Debian?

To remove MySQL, Run the following commands:

$ sudo apt-get remove --purge mysql-server mysql-client mysql-common -y
$ sudo apt-get autoremove -y
$ sudo apt-get autoclean
rm -rf /etc/mysql
sudo find / -iname 'mysql*' -exec rm -rf {} \;


How to secure MySQL ?

MySQL comes with a command we can use to perform a few security-related updates on our new install. Let's run it now:

$ mysql_secure_installation

This will ask you for the MySQL root password that you set during installation. Type it in and press ENTER. Then answer a series of yes or no prompts. 

Install PHP on Ubuntu 20.04 - Running Apache Web Server

This article covers the PHP installation on Ubuntu 20.04 system.  Basically, popular Content Management platforms such as WordPress, Drupal, and Magento are based on PHP.


To Install PHP on Ubuntu 20.04:

1. Update your server.

$ apt-get update && apt-get upgrade

2. Install PHP on Ubuntu 20.04, just run the following command.

$ apt-get install php

3. To verify if PHP is installed, run the following command.

php -v


To Install PHP 7.4 modules (extensions):

Run the command below.

apt-get install php-pear php-fpm php-dev php-zip php-curl php-xmlrpc php-gd php-mysql php-mbstring php-xml libapache2-mod-php

To check all the PHP modules available in Ubuntu, run:

$ apt-cache search --names-only ^php


How to install PHP 8.0 on Ubuntu 20.04 or 18.04 ?

1. First, update your Ubuntu server:

$ apt-get update && apt-get upgrade

2. Add the PHP repository (by Ondřej Surý):

$ apt-get install software-properties-common
$ add-apt-repository ppa:ondrej/php

3. And finally, update your package list:

$ apt-get update

4. Install PHP 8.0 with the following command:

$ apt-get install php8.0

5. To check if PHP 8.0 is installed on your server, run the following command:

$ php -v

6. Install PHP 8.0 modules (extensions)

You may need additional packages and modules depending on your applications. The most commonly used modules can be installed with the following command:

$ apt-get install libapache2-mod-php8.0 php8.0-fpm libapache2-mod-fcgid php8.0-curl php8.0-dev php8.0-gd php8.0-mbstring php8.0-zip php8.0-mysql php8.0-xml


How to change the PHP version you're using ?

If you have multiple PHP versions installed on your Ubuntu server, you can change what version is the default one.

1. To set PHP 7.4 as the default, run:

$ update-alternatives --set php /usr/bin/php7.4

2. To set PHP 8.0 as the default, run:

$ update-alternatives --set php /usr/bin/php8.0

3. You can verify what version of PHP you’re using with the following command:

$ php -v

Install LEMP Stack on CentOS 7 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install LEMP stack on CentOS 7. LEMP stands for the Linux operating system, with the ENginx web server (which replaces the Apache component of a LAMP stack). The site data is stored in a MySQL-based database, and dynamic content is processed by PHP.

A LEMP software stack is basically a group of open source software that is typically installed together to enable a server to host dynamic websites and web apps.


To install Nginx on CentOS:

1. Add the CentOS 7 EPEL repository, run the following command:

$ sudo yum install epel-release

2. Now that the EPEL repository is installed on your server, install Nginx using the following yum command:

$ sudo yum install nginx

3. Once the installation is finished, start the Nginx service with:

$ sudo systemctl start nginx

Install phpMyAdmin with Nginx on CentOS 7 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install phpMyAdmin with Nginx on CentOS 7 system. phpMyAdmin helps to handle the database administration of MySQL, MariaDB and Drizzle servers over the web. It basically provides the intuitive web interface and supports most of the MySQL features to create and drop databases, create/drop/alter tables, delete/edit/add columns, execute any SQL statement and to manage indexes on columns.


To install phpMyAdmin, run the following commands:

# yum install epel-release
# yum install phpmyadmin


To restart nginx, mariadb and php-fpm services, run the following commands:

# systemctl restart mariadb.service
# systemctl restart nginx.service
# systemctl restart php-fpm.service

Install phpMyAdmin with Apache on CentOS 7 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to Install phpMyAdmin with Apache on CentOS 7 system. phpMyAdmin is a database utility used for managing MySQL databases through a graphical web-based interface. It can be configured to manage a local database (on the same system), or a remote database (over a network).


To Install EPEL Repository:

1. Get access to the EPEL repository – the Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux, by running the command.

$ sudo yum install -y epel-release

2. Once that operation finishes, it's a good idea to refresh and update the EPEL repository.

$ sudo yum –y update


To Install Apache Web Server:

1. Install Apache on CentOS use the command.

$ yum install httpd -y

2. Verify the status of Apache by running with the command.

$ systemctl status httpd


To install PHPMyAdmin on CentOS, enter the command:

$ sudo yum -y install phpmyadmin

Install phpMyAdmin with Apache on Ubuntu 18.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install phpMyAdmin with Apache on Ubuntu 18.04 system. While many users need the functionality of a database management system like MySQL, they may not feel comfortable interacting with the system solely from the MySQL prompt. phpMyAdmin was created so that users can interact with MySQL through a web interface. 


Important php packages includes:

  • php-mbstring: A module for managing non-ASCII strings and convert strings to different encodings.
  • php-zip: This extension supports uploading .zip files to phpMyAdmin.
  • php-gd: Enables support for the GD Graphics Library.
  • php-json: Provides PHP with support for JSON serialization.
  • php-curl: Allows PHP to interact with different kinds of servers using different protocols.

Install phpMyAdmin with Apache on Debian 9 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers step by step process to Install and Configure phpMyAdmin with Apache on Debian 9 system. The phpMyAdmin utility is a graphical database management tool. By installing phpMyAdmin, you no longer need to use a default command-line interface to manage your databases.


To install wget:

1. Access your terminal window, and update your software package lists using the following command:

$ sudo apt update

2. The wget utility allows you to download files directly from the terminal window. Enter the following command to install the wget tool:

$ sudo apt install wget -y


To install Apache on Debian:

1. Open a terminal window, and install Apache by entering the following command:

$ sudo apt install apache2 -y

2. Enter the following command to make sure the Apache service is running:

$ systemctl status apache2

In the output, you should see a green status that says active (running).


To Install PHP on Debian 10:

1. Install core PHP packages and Apache and MySQL plugins with the following command:

$ sudo apt install php php-cgi php-mysqli php-pear php-mbstring php-gettext libapache2-mod-php php-common php-phpseclib php-mysql -y

2. Once the installation process is complete, verify that PHP has been installed:

$ php --version

The system displays the current version of PHP, along with the date of the release.

Install MariaDB on Ubuntu 18.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install MariaDB on Ubuntu 18.04 server. Also, you will learn how to secure and connect to MariaDB server. MariaDB is an open-source relational database management system, commonly used as an alternative for MySQL as the database portion of the popular LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP/Python/Perl) stack. Basically, It is intended to be a drop-in replacement for MySQL.


How to Install MariaDB ?

1. To install it, update the package index on your server with apt:

$ sudo apt update

2, Then install the package:

$ sudo apt install mariadb-server

Install MySQL on CentOS 7 Server - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install and secure a MySQL server on a CentOS 7 server. MySQL is one of the most widely used database management systems for websites and server applications.


To start the MySQL server daemon with the following command:

$ sudo systemctl start mysqld

systemctl doesn't display the outcome of all service management commands, so to be sure we succeeded, we'll use the following command:

$ sudo systemctl status mysqld

To configure MySQL, run the following command:

$ sudo mysql_secure_installation

To Current MySQL Version, run the command:

$ mysql -u root -p


Terms used in Managing MySQL User Permissions:

  • SELECT – users can read through the database using the select command.
  • CREATE – they can generate new tables.
  • DROP – allows users to remove tables.
  • DELETE – users can take out rows from tables.
  • INSERT – lets users add in rows into tables.
  • UPDATE – enable them to update the rows.
  • GRANT OPTION – they can grant or remove the privileges of other users.

Install MariaDB on Debian 9 Server - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install MariaDB version on a Debian 10 server, and verify that it is running and has a safe initial configuration.


How To Install MariaDB on Debian 10 ?

1. To install MariaDB, update the package index on your server with apt:

$ sudo apt update

2. Then install the package:

$ sudo apt install mariadb-server

3. To Configure MariaDB, Run the security script:

$ sudo mysql_secure_installation

Install LEMP Stack on Debian 9 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers steps to install a LEMP stack on a Debian 10 server using MariaDB as the database management system. The LEMP software stack is a group of software that can be used to serve dynamic web pages and web applications. The name "LEMP" is an acronym that describes a Linux operating system, with an (E)Nginx web server. The backend data is stored in a MariaDB database and the dynamic processing is handled by PHP.

Although this software stack typically includes MySQL as the database management system, some Linux distributions — including Debian — use MariaDB as a drop-in replacement for MySQL.


To install Nginx Web Server.

1. Run the apt commands:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install nginx

On Debian 10, Nginx is configured to start running upon installation.

Install LEMP Stack on Ubuntu 18.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to Install a LEMP Stack on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. LEMP stack is a group of open-source software that is typically installed together to enable a server to host dynamic websites and web apps. LEMP stands for Linux OS, with the Nginx (pronounced like "Engine-X") web server, Data store in a MySQL database, and dynamic content is processed by PHP.


To install Nginx Web Server:

1.  Run the commands below to install Nginx.

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install nginx

2. Allow traffic on port 80.

$ sudo ufw allow 'Nginx HTTP'

You can verify the change by running:

$ sudo ufw status

Install LAMP Stack on Ubuntu 18.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers step by step process to install a LAMP stack on an Ubuntu 18.04 server. LAMP stack is a group of open-source software that is typically installed together to host dynamic websites. LAMP stands for Linux OS, with Apache web server, Data store in a MySQL database, and dynamic content is processed by PHP.


To Install Apache and Update the Firewall.

1. Install Apache using Ubuntu’s package manager, apt:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install apache2

2. Allow incoming HTTP and HTTPS traffic for this profile:

$ sudo ufw allow in "Apache Full"

Install MySQL on Ubuntu 18.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install MySQL version 8.0 on an Ubuntu 20.04 server. By completing it, you will have a working relational database that you can use to build your next website or application.

MySQL is an open-source database management system, commonly installed as part of the popular LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP/Python/Perl) stack. It implements the relational model and uses Structured Query Language (better known as SQL) to manage its data.


To install MySQL using the APT package repository:

1. Update the package index on your server if you've not done so recently:

$ sudo apt update

2. Then install the mysql-server package:

$ sudo apt install mysql-server

This will install MySQL, but will not prompt you to set a password or make any other configuration changes. 

Because this leaves your installation of MySQL insecure, we will address this next.

Install PHP On Ubuntu 18.04 | 16.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers steps To Install Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP (LAMP) stack on Ubuntu Linux System. PHP stands for Hypertext Preprocessor, and it’s a script-based server-side programming language. PHP is often used to automate server tasks. It handles tasks like dynamic content, database requests, and processing and displaying data.

A "LAMP" stack is a group of open source software that is typically installed together to enable a server to host dynamic websites and web apps. 

This term is actually an acronym which represents the Linux operating system, with the Apache web server. 

The site data is stored in a MySQL database, and dynamic content is processed by PHP.


To Install PHP 7.2 with Apache on Ubuntu:

1. Ensure you are using the latest Ubuntu updates by entering the following command into a terminal window:

$ apt-get update && apt-get upgrade

2. To install PHP 7.2, enter the following command:

$ sudo apt-get install php libapache2-mod-php

Confirm the installation by hitting Enter. The system will download and install PHP from the software repositories. This command also installs dependencies and modules for use with Apache.

3. Verify PHP was installed, with the command:

$ php -v

Install Zabbix Agent on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install the Zabbix Agent on a Ubuntu 20.04 system very conveniently.
You can ensure the successful installation of the Zabbix Agent by checking its Active status on your system. However, you can also uninstall it anytime you want.
Zabbix agent is installed on the remote host (target) to monitor the hard drive, memory processor, etc. The agent collects data and sends back to Zabbix Server.
Zabbix agents can use passive or active checks to pass information.
In passive check, Zabbix server (poller) requests an agent for certain information, and the agent sends back a value.
In the active check, the agent process all data and pushes it to the Zabbix server.
However, agent periodically connects the server to collect metric which needs to be monitored.


To Configure Zabbix agent:
Make necessary changes on the Zabbix Agent configuration file "/etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.conf".
After making changes, Save the changes and exit the file.
Then restart Zabbix agent service to the changes to be effected.

$ sudo systemctl restart zabbix-agent


To Configure the firewall on Zabbix agent:
1. If you have UFW firewall enables, execute the commands:

$ sudo ufw allow 10050/tcp

2. Then reload the firewall

$ sudo ufw reload

3. And verify that the port has been opened or allowed on the firewall.

$ sudo ufw status

Reset MySQL Root Password on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to reset or change your MySQL root password on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8.

MySQL is an open source relational database management system (RDBMS) with a client-server model for creating and managing databases based on a relational model.


To Reset the MySQL root password:

You must run the commands in the following steps as the root user. 

Therefore, you can either log in directly as the root user (which is not recommended for security reasons), or use the su or sudo commands to run the commands as the root user.

To reset the root password for MySQL, follow these steps:

1. Log in to your account using SSH.

2. Stop the MySQL server using the appropriate command for your Linux distribution:

For CentOS and Fedora, type:

$ service mysqld stop

For Debian and Ubuntu, type:

$ service mysql stop

3. Restart the MySQL server with the —skip-grant-tables option. To do this, type the following command:

$ mysqld_safe --skip-grant-tables &

4. Log into MySQL using the following command:

$ mysql

5. At the mysql> prompt, reset the password. To do this, type the following command, replacing new-password with the new root password:

UPDATE mysql.user SET Password=PASSWORD('new-password') WHERE User='root';

6. At the mysql> prompt, type the following commands:

FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
exit;

7. Stop the MySQL server using the following command.

You will be prompted to enter the new MySQL root password before the MySQL server shuts down:

$ mysqladmin -u root -p shutdown

8. Start the MySQL server normally. To do this, type the appropriate command for your Linux distribution:

For CentOS and Fedora, type:

$ service mysqld start

For Debian and Ubuntu, type:

$ service mysql start

Install MySQL Version 8 on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to Install MySQL Version 8 on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8. Now, you should now have a fully functioning MySQL server version 8 running on your Server.


To Install MySQL 8.0 On CentOS 8 / RHEL 8:

1. Install MySQL 8.0 from MySQL Dev Community

Add the official repository of MySQL to install the MySQL community server:

$ rpm -ivh https://dev.mysql.com/get/mysql80-community-release-el8-1.noarch.rpm

Make sure the MySQL repository has been added and enabled by using the following command:

$ yum repolist all | grep mysql | grep enabled


To Manage MySQL server Service on Linux:

1. After the installation of MySQL, start MySQL server service using the following command:

$ systemctl start mysqld

2. The below command will Enable MySQL server at system startup:

$ systemctl enable mysqld

3. Verify that MySQL server is started using the following command:

$ systemctl status mysqld

Backup and Restore MySQL Databases on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to take Backups and restore a MySQL database on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8.


Advantage of logical backup:

The main advantage of logical backup over physical backup is portability and flexibility. 

The data can be restored on other hardware configurations, MariaDB versions or Database Management System (DBMS), which is not possible with physical backups.

Note that physical backup must be performed when the mariadb.service is not running or all tables in the database are locked to prevent changes during the backup.


The mysqldump client is a backup utility, which can can be used to dump a database or a collection of databases for the purpose of a backup or transfer to another database server. 

The output of mysqldump typically consists of SQL statements to re-create the server table structure, populate it with data, or both. 

Alternatively, mysqldump can also generate files in other formats, including CSV or other delimited text formats, and XML.


Advantages of Physical backup:

1. Output is more compact.

2. Backup is smaller in size.

3. Backup and restore are faster.

4. Backup includes log and configuration files.


You can use one of the following MariaDB backup approaches to back up data from a MariaDB database:

1. Logical backup with mysqldump

2. Physical online backup using the Mariabackup tool

3. File system backup

4. Replication as a backup solution


To Backing up an entire database with mysqldump:

Execute the command:

# mysqldump [options] db_name > backup-file.sql


Using mysqldump to back up a set of tables from one database:

To back up a subset of tables from one database, add a list of the chosen tables at the end of the mysqldump command:

# mysqldump [options] db_name [tbl_name …​]



To restore the data while keeping the original backup files, use the following procedure:

1. Run the mariabackup command with the --copy-back option:

$ mariabackup --copy-back --target-dir=/var/mariadb/backup/

2. Fix the file permissions.

When restoring a database, Mariabackup preserves the file and directory privileges of the backup. However, Mariabackup writes the files to disk as the user and group restoring the database. 

For example, to recursively change ownership of the files to the mysql user and group:

# chown -R mysql:mysql /var/lib/mysql/

3. Start the mariadb service:

# systemctl start mariadb.service

Job for mariadb.service failed because the control process exited with error code - How to fix it ?

This article covers how to resolve the above maiadb problem "Job for mariadb.service failed because the control process exited with error code" which may arise during the installation of #MariaDB on #CentOS 8.

The /var/lib/mysql directory is not empty when MariaDB is installed, it contains e.g. the 'mysql' database and some other files. 

Recreating the folder, even with correct permissions, will not help you. 

Either MariaDB has not been successfully installed or the directory was removed. Reinstall MariaDB to get a working basic database system back.

Also, you can give access /var/log/mysql/* to mysql by running the command:

sudo chown mysql:mysql /var/log/mysql/*


MariaDB offers more and better storage engines, NoSQL support, provided by Cassandra, allows you to run SQL and NoSQL in a single database system. 

MariaDB also supports TokuDB, which can handle big data for large organizations and corporate users.


To view mysql error logs:

1. edit /etc/my.cnf [mysqld] log=/tmp/mysql.log.

2. restart the computer or the mysqld service service mysqld restart.

3. open phpmyadmin/any application that uses mysql/mysql console and run a query.

4. cat /tmp/mysql.log ( you should see the query )

Install MariaDB on CentOS 8 - Step by step process ?

This article will guide you on how to install MariaDB on your CentOS 8 system. Now you can create new databases and grant privileges to other database users. Also, you can add users and create new databases for web or desktop applications which will be written in PHP, Python, and so on.

In MariaDB replication is faster whereas in MySQL replication is slower. 

MariaDB is Open Source whereas MySQL uses some proprietary code in its Enterprise Edition. 

MariaDB doesn't support Data Masking and Dynamic column while MySQL supports it. Comparatively MariaDB is faster than MySQL.


To uninstall MariaDB and install mysql:

1. Purge mariadb sudo apt purge mariadb-* Remove all databases ('Yes' answer)

2. Purge mysql sudo apt purge mysql-*

3. Remove folders: sudo rm -r /usr/share/mysql/ sudo rm -r /etc/mysql/ sudo rm -r /lib/systemd/system/mysql.service.

4. Now you can try to install oracle mysql: sudo apt install mysql-server.

MariaDB on Debian 10 - Step by step process to install it ?

This article will guide you on the different methods to conveniently install and start the MariaDB service on a Debian 10 system. Also, we dealt with how to easily remove MariaDB from your Debian 10 system. 

In MariaDB replication is faster whereas in MySQL replication is slower. 

MariaDB is Open Source whereas MySQL uses some proprietary code in its Enterprise Edition. 

MariaDB doesn't support Data Masking and Dynamic column while MySQL supports it. Comparatively MariaDB is faster than MySQL.

Since MariaDB is a fork of MySQL, the database structure and indexes of MariaDB are the same as #MySQL. 

This allows you to switch from MySQL to MariaDB without having to alter your applications since the data and data structures will not need to change. Data and table definition files are compatible.


To install #MariaDB on #Debian , follow these steps:

1. First update the apt packages index by typing: sudo apt update.

2. Once the packages list is updated, install MariaDB by running the following command: sudo apt install mariadb-server.

3. The MariaDB service will start automatically.

Step by step process to Install the latest MySQL on Debian 10 ?

This article will guide you on how to #install #MySQL server on Debian 10 #Linux system. Also we looked into how to secure the installation and connect with the MySQL shell. Using the Validate password #plugin you can make a more secure database MySQL password #authentication.

MySQL is an #RDBMS tostore, retrieve, modify and administrate a database usingSQL.

The mysql #command:

1. -h followed by the server host name (server.LinuxReels.com).

2. -u followed by the account user name (use your MySQL username).

3. -p which tells mysql to prompt for a password.

4. database the name of the database (use your database name).

Step by step process to install MongoDB on Linux Mint 20 ?

This article will guide you on methods to install MongoDB on #Linux #Mint 20 system. You can check #MongoDB status, and can also access its shell to pass #commands to this database.

MongoDB installs as a #systemd service, which means that you can manage it using standard systemd commands alongside all other sytem services in Ubuntu. To verify the status of the service, type: sudo systemctl status mongodb.

Companies and development teams of all sizes use MongoDB because: The document data model is a powerful way to store and retrieve data that allows developers to move fast. MongoDB's horizontal, scale-out architecture can support huge volumes of both data and traffic.

To start MongoDB in Debian:

1. Start MongoDB. Issue the following command to start mongod: sudo service mongod start.

2. Stop MongoDB. As needed, you can stop the mongod process by issuing the following command: sudo service mongod stop.

3. Restart MongoDB. Issue the following command to restart mongod: sudo service mongod restart.

MySQL on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - How to Install and Configure ?

This article will guide you on how to install and configure #MySQL server on the #Linux system Ubuntu 20.04 in this article. Also, we have explored different basic commands to run MySQL server. MySQL is a relational #database that uses SQL to query a database. It facilitates data storing, modifying, and management in a tabular format. To install the latest version of MySQL in #ubuntu: 1. Enable MySQL #Repositories. 2. Install MySQL Repositories. 3. Refresh the Repositories. 4. Install MySQL. 5. Set up MySQL Security. 6. Start, Stop, or Check Status of MySQL Service. 7. Launch MySQL to Enter #Commands.

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