Install OpenProject on Debian 11 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install and configure OpenProject on Debian 11. In fact, OpenProject provides a simple and easy-to-use web interface that allows you to collaborate on projects using features such as a WYSIWYG text editor, intelligent workflows, conditional formatting, team collaboration, Kanban, Agile & Scrum, project planning and scheduling, time tracking, product roadmaps, and release planning.

Install Wireshark Network Packet Analyzer on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to Install Wireshark on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. In fact, Wireshark is a free & open source network packet analyzer tool. It helps to capture all packet getting in or out of a network interface and shows. It supports all platform such as Linux, Windows and Mac OS.


How to install wireshark on ubuntu ?

1. Update the System with the below command:

$ apt-get update

2. Install the wireshark on system with the below command:

$ apt-get install wireshark

Next, you will be prompted to configure Wireshark.

Select the Yes option.

3. Add user to the WireShark group with the below command:

$ usermod -aG wireshark $(whoami)

4. Reboot the system:

$ reboot

5. Finally, to start Wireshark from Terminal using command:

$ wireshark

Install LibreNMS Monitoring Tool on Debian 11 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the complete procedure for installing the latest version of LibreNMS network monitoring system on Debian 11 Bullseye. In fact, LibreNMS is an auto discovering PHP/MySQL-based network monitoring system that includes support for a wide range of network hardware and operating systems including Cisco, Linux, FreeBSD, Juniper, Brocade, HP, and many more.

Setting Up an Icecast Audio Streaming Server

This article will guide you through the steps on setting up an HTTPS audio stream over #Icecast on #Linux. The guide will assume that you are running #Ubuntu 18.04.

Install Docker On Ubuntu 18.04

This article will guide you on the process to successfully install the latest version of the #Docker engine and #Docker-Compose on an #Ubuntu server (version 18 and up).

Migrating Zabbix from one Linux server to another

This article will help you to migrate Zabbix from one Linux server to another (Centos to Debian).

Install Zabbix agent on CentOS

This guide will show you the steps to install zabbix agent on your CentOS server.

cPanel Error Iproute Conflicts With Kernel - Fix it Now ?

This article covers method to fix cPanel Error Iproute Conflicts With Kernel. Basically, this error happens when we have an outdated kernel on the server. 


Instead of deleting conflicting kernels, you can also add the iproute package to the excludes of yum in /etc/yum.conf file, then the iproute package won't be marked for the update.

It can be useful when you need to perform an update but can't reboot the server at the given moment. 

It can be excluded manually using a preferred text editor or using the following command:

$ sed -i 's/exclude=/exclude=iproute /' /etc/yum.conf

The change can be reverted using this command:

$ sed -i 's/exclude=iproute /exclude=/' /etc/yum.conf

Install Wazuh Server on CentOS 7 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the installation procedure of Wazuh Server on CentOS Linux System. Basically, Wazuh is a free, open-source and enterprise-ready security monitoring solution for threat detection, integrity monitoring, incident response and compliance. 


You can use Wazuh for the following applications:

  • Security analysis
  • Log analysis
  • Vulnerability detection
  • Container security
  • Cloud security


To Install Java on CentOS 8.

1. Run the command below to install JDK:

$ sudo dnf install java-11-openjdk-devel

2. Confirm that you have it installed

$ java -version

Access denied to VNC Server - How to fix this error ?

This article covers methods to fix the error, Access denied to VNC Server. Basically, this error occurs while trying to connect to a VNC server using a cloud connection. This message means that your RealVNC account has been signed out of VNC Viewer.

This will happen if you have recently changed the password for your RealVNC account, for example.


To resolve this VNC connection issue, click Sign in again and enter your RealVNC account credentials.

Once you see a green tick/check mark in the top right next to your name, try connecting to the VNC Server again.

Install Docker CE on AlmaLinux 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the process of installing Docker CE on AlmaLinux. Docker is a popular virtualization platform for running applications in Containers.

It allows us to build and communicate containers with one on another.


To install Docker CE on AlmaLinux 8:

1. Add official Docker CE repository on your AlmaLinux 8, so that we can install it without downloading its packages manually.

$ sudo dnf config-manager --add-repo=https://download.docker.com/linux/centos/docker-ce.repo

2. To let the system recognize the added Docker repository and the packages available in the same, run the system update that will force AlmaLinux to rebuild the system repo cache.

$ sudo dnf update

3. You can check the added repo including others of your system using the command.

$ sudo dnf repolist -v

4. Run the Command to Install Docker CE Engine.

$ sudo dnf install docker-ce docker-ce-cli containerd.io

5. Once the installation is completed, start the Docker service on your AlmaLinux and also enable it to run automatically with system boot.

$ sudo systemctl enable docker
$ sudo systemctl start docker

6. Check the Status of the Service to know it is working properly.

$ systemctl status docker

NRPE Command Plugin Not Defined - How to fix it ?

This article covers methods to resolve 'NRPE Command Plugin Not Defined' for our customers.

This error is very straight forward. Usually this is caused by a mismatch between the command name declared in Nagios XI to be check through NRPE and the actual command name of the command directive in the remote host's nrpe.cfg file.

This problem will occur in versions of check_nrpe before v3. 

What is happening here is that the initial -c check_users is being overwritten by the -a -w 5 -c 10, as check_nrpe thinks the -c 10 argument is the command argument, not one of the -a arguments.

Install PHP 8 on Ubuntu 20.04 or 18.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers steps to install PHP 8 on Ubuntu. PHP is arguably one of the most widely used server-side programming languages. It's the language of choice when developing dynamic and responsive websites. Basically, popular CM platforms such as WordPress, Drupal, and Magento are based on PHP.


To Install PHP as Apache Module

Run the commands:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install php8.0 libapache2-mod-php8.0

Once the packages are installed, restart Apache for the PHP module to get loaded:

$ sudo systemctl restart apache2


To Configure Apache with PHP-FPM

Php-FPM is a FastCGI process manager for PHP. 

1. Run the following command to install the necessary packages:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install php8.0-fpm libapache2-mod-fcgid

2. By default PHP-FPM is not enabled in Apache. 

To enable it, run:

$ sudo a2enmod proxy_fcgi setenvif
$ sudo a2enconf php8.0-fpm

3. To activate the changes, restart Apache:

$ systemctl restart apache2 


To install PHP 8.0 with Nginx

Nginx doesn't have built-in support for processing PHP files. We'll use PHP-FPM ("fastCGI process manager") to handle the PHP files.

Run the following commands to install PHP and PHP FPM packages:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install php8.0-fpm

Once the installation is completed, the FPM service will start automatically. 

To check the status of the service, run

$ systemctl status php8.0-fpm

Do not forget to restart the Nginx service so that the new configuration takes effect:

$ sudo systemctl restart nginx

Install PHP 8 on Debian 10 / Debian 9 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install PHP 8 on any Linux distribution.


To install Apache with PHP 8 module:

$ sudo apt install apache2 libapache2-mod-php8.0 

After successful installation, restart Apache service to reload newly installed modules:

$ sudo systemctl restart apache2 


To check loaded PHP modules use the command:

$ php -m

Install CloudPanel on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the Installation procedure of CloudPanel on Ubuntu 20.04. Basically, CloudPanel, an open source, PHP-based host control software built for the cloud helps to manage hosted services.

CloudPanel is a server management control panel designed to be fast, easy to use and customizable. This piece of software supports management of Domains, Linux services, Cron jobs, FTP services, System security through IP and Bots blocking, User management, Cloud platforms support, among many others.


Main features of CloudPanel Includes:

1. Free to use and open source

2. Provides powerful intuitive interface for management

3. Designed for high Performance with minimal resource usage

4. It is secure – provision of free SSL/TLS certificates

5. It supports all major clouds – AWS, Digital Ocean, GCP, e.t.c

6. CloudPanel is available in more than ten languages, making it easy to install in any region

7. One-Click Let's Encrypt Certificates

8. NGINX Support

9. Multiple PHP Versions


To fix failed CloudPanel installation:

$ sudo apt -f install

Install CloudPanel Control Panel on Debian 10 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to Install CloudPanel Control Panel on Debian 10. With Cloud panel, you can manage MySQL, NGINX, PHP-FPM, Redis, Domain, FTP, User management, and many more from the web-based interface. 

It supports all major cloud providers including, AWS, Google, Digital Ocean, and specially designed for high performance with minimal resource usage.

It also offers a CLI tool that helps you to perform several operations including, database backup, password reset, permissions, and more.


To Install CloudPanel on Debian Linux:

1. You can download it with the following command:

# curl -sSL https://installer.cloudpanel.io/ce/v1/install.sh -o cloudpanel_installer.sh

2. Once the script is downloaded, set proper permission to the downloaded script with the following command:

# chmod +x cloudpanel_installer.sh

3. Next, run the script using the following command:

$ ./cloudpanel_installer.sh


Main Features of CloudPanel as listed in the official project website are:

1. It is open source and free to use

2. It provides a powerful intuitive interface for management

3. It is secure – provision of free SSL/TLS certificates

4. Designed for high Performance with minimal resource usage

5. It supports all major clouds – AWS, Digital Ocean, GCP, e.t.c

6. CloudPanel is available in more than ten languages, making it easy to install in any region

Install Ajenti Control Panel on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers step by step procedure to install Ajenti Control Panel on Ubuntu 20.04 for our customers.

Ajenti is a free to use and open source Server management and configuration Panel written in Python, JavaScript, and AngularJS. It provides a web dashboard for administration as opposed to command line management.

With this tool you can manage websites, DNS, Cron, Firewall, Files, Logs, Mail hosting services and so on.


The Ajenti Project consists of Ajenti Core and set of stock plugins forming the Ajenti Panel.

1. Ajenti Core: Web interface development framework which includes a web server, IoC container, a simplistic web framework and set of core components aiding in client-server communications.

2. Ajenti Panel: Consists of plugins developed for the Ajenti Core and a startup script, together providing a server administration panel experience.


To Install Ajenti Control Panel on Ubuntu 20.04:

1. Update and upgrade your Ubuntu machine.

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt dist-upgrade

2. If the upgrade is completed reboot the system before initiating installation of Ajenti on Ubuntu 20.04.

$ sudo systemctl reboot

3. There is a script provided for the installation of Ajenti control panel on Ubuntu 20.04. First download the script with curl.

$ curl -O https://raw.githubusercontent.com/ajenti/ajenti/master/scripts/install.sh

4. Run the installer script with sudo command.

$ sudo bash ./install.sh

Unable to connect to VNC Server using your chosen security setting - How to fix it ?

This article covers method to resolve Unable to connect to VNC Server using your chosen security setting.
Basically, the unable to connect error could trigger due to incompatible encryption settings or due to the version of the VNC running in the remote server.

To fix this VNC error, simply apply the following:

1. On the remote computer, change the VNC Server Encryption parameter to something other than AlwaysOff.
2. Change the VNC Viewer Encryption parameter to Server, PreferOn or PreferOff.

Remove Nginx on linux in Vesta control panel - Step by Step process to do it

This article covers how to remove Nginx on Linux in the Vesta control panel. 

Vesta control panel (VestaCP) is an open source hosting control panel, which can be used to manage multiple websites, create and manage email accounts, FTP accounts, and MySQL databases, manage DNS records and more.


To uninstall VestaCP on CentOS, follow the steps below:

1. Connect to your server via SSH as root

2. Stop the Vesta service with service vesta stop:

$ service vesta stop 

3. Delete Vesta packages/software repository:

# yum remove vesta*

and

# rm -f /etc/yum.repos.d/vesta.repo

4. You may also want to remove /usr/local/vesta folder:

# rm -rf vesta

5. Now we have to remove the cron jobs for the user admin.

Let's list first the cron jobs:

# crontab -u admin -l
MAILTO=admin@ibmimedia.com
CONTENT_TYPE="text/plain; charset=utf-8"
15 02 * * * sudo /usr/local/vesta/bin/v-update-sys-queue disk
10 00 * * * sudo /usr/local/vesta/bin/v-update-sys-queue traffic
30 03 * * * sudo /usr/local/vesta/bin/v-update-sys-queue webstats
*/5 * * * * sudo /usr/local/vesta/bin/v-update-sys-queue backup
10 05 * * * sudo /usr/local/vesta/bin/v-backup-users
20 00 * * * sudo /usr/local/vesta/bin/v-update-user-stats
*/5 * * * * sudo /usr/local/vesta/bin/v-update-sys-rrd
40 2 * * * sudo /usr/local/vesta/bin/v-update-sys-vesta-all
03 3 * * * sudo /usr/local/vesta/bin/v-update-letsencrypt-ssl

6. Remove the cron jobs via crontab -u admin -e:

# crontab -u admin -e

7. Save and exit:


Best Ubuntu APT Repository Mirror - How to get it

This article covers methods to find the best APT mirror on the Ubuntu server. 


To Find Best Ubuntu APT Repository Mirror Using Apt-smart:

Apt-smart is yet another command line tool written in Python. It helps you to find APT mirrors that provides best download rate for your location. It can smartly retrieve the mirrors by querying the Debian mirror list, Ubuntu mirror list and Linux mint mirror list and choose best mirror based on the country in which the user lives in. The discovered mirrors are ranked by bandwidth and their status (like up-to-date, 3-hours-behind, one-week-behind etc).

Another notable feature of Apt-smart is it will automatically switch to any other different mirrors when the current mirror is being updated. The new mirrors can be selected either automatically or manually by the user. Good thing is Apt-smart will backup the current sources.list before updating it with new mirrors.


To Install Apt-smart in Ubuntu:

Make sure you have installed Pip and run the following commands one by one to install Apt-smart:

$ pip3 install --user apt-smart
$ echo "export PATH=\$(python3 -c 'import site; print(site.USER_BASE + \"/bin\")'):\$PATH" >> ~/.bashrc
$ source ~/.bashrc


To List all mirrors based on rank:

To list all available ranked mirrors in the terminal, run:

$ apt-smart --list-mirrors

Or,

$ apt-smart -l


To Automatically update mirrors:

Instead of manually finding and updating the best mirror in Ubuntu, you can let Apt-smart to choose a best Apt mirror and automatically update the sources.list with new one like below:

$ apt-smart --auto-change-mirror

To get help, run:

$ apt-smart --help

Delete Repository And GPG Key On Ubuntu Systems

This article covers steps to delete the repository and GPG Key On Ubuntu. All packages are signed with a pair of keys consisting of a private key and a public key, by the package maintainer.

A user's private key is kept secret and the public key may be given to anyone the user wants to communicate.

Whenever you add a new repository to your system, you must also add a repository key so that the APT Package Manager trusts the newly added repository.

Once you've added the repository keys, you can make sure you get the packages from the correct source.


To remove Repository keys:

You can remove the repository key if it is no longer needed or if the repository has already been removed from the system.

It can be deleted by entering the full key with quotes as follows (which has a hex value of 40 characters):

$ sudo apt-key del "D320 D0C3 0B02 E64C 5B2B B274 3766 2239 8999 3A70"
OK

Alternatively, you can delete a key by entering only the last 8 characters:

$ sudo apt-key del 89993A70
OK

Once you have removed the repository key, run the apt command to refresh the repository index:

$ sudo apt update

You can verify that the above GPG key has been removed by running the following command:

$ sudo apt-key list

Configure software RAID on Linux using MDADM - Do it now

This article covers how to Configure software RAID on Linux using MDADM.


To Install a Software Raid Management Tool:

To install mdadm, run the installation command:

1. For CentOS/Red Hat (yum/dnf is used): $ yum install mdadm

2. For Ubuntu/Debian: $ apt-get install mdadm

3. SUSE: $ sudo zypper install mdadm

4. Arch Linux: $ sudo pacman -S mdadm


Terms related to Integrity of a RAID Array:

1. Version – the metadata version

2. Creation Time – the date and time of RAID creation

3. Raid Level – the level of a RAID array

4. Array Size – the size of the RAID disk space

5. Used Dev Size – the space size used by devices

6. Raid Device – the number of disks in the RAID

7. Total Devices – is the number of disks added to the RAID

8. State – is the current state (clean — it is OK)

9. Active Devices – number of active disks in the RAID

10. Working Devises – number of working disks in the RAID

11. Failed Devices – number of failed devices in the RAID

12. Spare Devices – number of spare disks in the RAID

13. Consistency Policy – is the parameter that sets the synchronization type after a failure, rsync is a full synchronization after RAID array recovery (bitmap, journal, ppl modes are available)

14. UUID – raid array identifier


To Recovering from a Disk Failure in RAID, Disk Replacement:

If one of the disks in a RAID failed or damaged, you may replace it with another one. First of all, find out if the disc is damaged and needs to be replaced.

# cat /proc/mdstat


To Add or Remove Disks to Software RAID on Linux:

1. If you need to remove the previously created mdadm RAID device, unmount it:

# umount /backup

2. Then run this command:

# mdadm -S /dev/md0

mdadm: stopped /dev/md0

3. After destroying the RAID array, it won’t detected as a separate disk device:

# mdadm -S /dev/md0

mdadm: error opening /dev/md0: No such file or directory

4. You can scan all connected drives and re-create a previously removed (failed) RAID device according to the metadata on physical drives. Run the following command:

# mdadm --assemble —scan


About Mdmonitor: RAID State Monitoring & Email Notifications:

The mdmonitor daemon can be used to monitor the status of the RAID. 

1. First, you must create the /etc/mdadm.conf file containing the current array configuration:

# mdadm –detail –scan > /etc/mdadm.conf

The mdadm.conf file is not created automatically. You must create and update it manually.

2. Add to the end of /etc/mdadm.conf the administrator email address to which you want to send notifications in case of any RAID problems:

MAILADDR raidadmin@woshub.com

3. Then restart mdmonitor service using systemctl:

# systemctl restart mdmonitor

Then the system will notify you by e-mail if there are any mdadm errors or faulty disks.

resolvconf error resolv conf must be a symlink - Fix it Now

This article covers how to fix resolv.conf error which happens when we try to restart the BIND 9 server under Ubuntu Linux.


To fix Resolvconf error "resolvconf: Error: /etc/resolv.conf must be a symlink":

Open a terminal and run the following commands:

$ sudo rm /etc/resolv.conf

$ sudo ln -s ../run/resolvconf/resolv.conf /etc/resolv.conf

$ sudo resolvconf -u


As of Ubuntu 12.04 resolvconf is part of the base system.

You can recreate the needed symlink by running:

$ dpkg-reconfigure resolvconf

or by doing the following in a terminal.

$ sudo ln -nsf ../run/resolvconf/resolv.conf /etc/resolv.conf

Note that as of Ubuntu 12.10 resolvconf no longer aborts if /etc/resolv.conf is not a symlink. It does print a warning message, but this can be silenced by putting the line:

REPORT_ABSENT_SYMLINK=no

in /etc/default/resolvconf.

Install ClickHouse on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step process to perform it

This article covers how to install ClickHouse on Ubuntu. Basically, ClickHouse is an open-source analytics database developed for big data use cases. 

Install of ClickHouse on Ubuntu involves a series of steps that includes adjusting the configuration file to enable listening over other IP address and remote access. 


Column-oriented databases store records in blocks grouped by columns instead of rows. 

By not loading data for columns absent in the query, column-oriented databases spend less time reading data while completing queries. 

As a result, these databases can compute and return results much faster than traditional row-based systems for certain workloads, such as OLAP.


Online Analytics Processing (OLAP) systems allow for organizing large amounts of data and performing complex queries. 

They are capable of managing petabytes of data and returning query results quickly. 

In this way, OLAP is useful for work in areas like data science and business analytics.


Aggregation queries are queries that operate on a set of values and return single output values. 

In analytics databases, these queries are run frequently and are well optimized by the database. 


Some aggregate functions supported by ClickHouse are:

1. count: returns the count of rows matching the conditions specified.

2. sum: returns the sum of selected column values.

3. avg: returns the average of selected column values.


Some ClickHouse-specific aggregate functions include:

1. uniq: returns an approximate number of distinct rows matched.

2. topK: returns an array of the most frequent values of a specific column using an approximation algorithm.


You can set up a ClickHouse database instance on your server and create a database and table, add data, perform queries, and delete the database.

You can start, stop, and check the ClickHouse service with a few commands.

To start the clickhouse-server, use:

$ sudo systemctl start clickhouse-server

The output does not return a confirmation.

To check the ClickHouse service status, enter:

$ sudo systemctl status clickhouse-server

To stop the ClickHouse server, run this command:

$ sudo systemctl stop clickhouse-server

To enable ClickHouse on boot:

$ sudo systemctl enable clickhouse-server

To start working with ClickHouse databases, launch the ClickHouse client. 

When you start a session, the procedure is similar to other SQL management systems.

To start the client, use the command:

$ clickhouse-client

Add Remote Linux Host to Cacti for Monitoring - Do it now

This article covers how to add a #Linux host to #Cacti.

Basically, Cacti is a network #monitoring device that creates personalized graphs of server efficiency.

SNMP, short for Simple Network Management Protocol is a protocol used for gathering information about devices in a network. Using SNMP, you can poll metrics such as CPU utilization, memory usage, disk utilization, network bandwidth, and so on. 


To install snmp agent on Ubuntu, run the command:

$ sudo apt install snmp snmpd -y


To install #snmp agent On CentOS 8, run the command:

$ sudo dnf install net-snmp net-snmp-utils -y


SNMP starts automatically upon installation.

To confirm this, confirm the status by running:

$ sudo systemctl status snmpd

If the service is not running yet, start and enable it on boot as shown:

$ sudo systemctl start snmpd


To Add Remote Linux Host to Cacti for Monitoring:

1. Install SNMP service on Linux hosts. SNMP, short for Simple Network Management Protocol is a protocol used for gathering information about devices in a network.

2. Configuring SNMP service.

3. Configure the firewall rules for snmp.

4. Adding remote Linux host to Cacti.


To Install and Configure Cacti:

1. Cacti require few more dependencies, run the following command to install them:

yum -y install net-snmp rrdtool net-snmp-utils

2. As we have all the dependencies ready, we can now download the install package from Cacti website.

cd /var/www/html

wget http://www.cacti.net/downloads/cacti-1.1.10.tar.gz

3. You can always find the link to the latest version of the application on Cacti download page. Extract the archive using the following command.

tar xzvf cacti*.tar.gz

4. Rename your Cacti folder using:

mv cacti-1*/ cacti/

5. Now import the Cacti database by running the following command.

cd /var/www/html/cacti

mysql cacti_data < cacti.sql -u root -p

6. The above command will import the cacti.sql database into cacti_data using the user root. 

It will also ask you the password of root user before importing the database.

7. Now edit Cacti configuration by running the following command.

nano /var/www/html/cacti/include/config.php

8. Now find the following lines and edit them according to your MySQL database credentials.

/* make sure these values reflect your actual database/host/user/password */

$database_type     = 'mysql';

$database_default  = 'cacti_data';

$database_hostname = 'localhost';

$database_username = 'cacti_user';

$database_password = 'StrongPassword';

$database_port     = '3306';

$database_ssl      = false;

Configure Varnish with Apache - How to do it

This article covers how to configure Varnish #cache on the #Apache server. Varnish is an HTTP accelerator and a useful tool for speeding up a server, especially during a times when there is high traffic to a site. 

It works by redirecting visitors to static pages whenever possible and only drawing on the virtual private server itself if there is a need for an active process.

#Varnish is a caching HTTP reverse proxy. It receives requests from clients and tries to answer them from the cache.


Where is varnish configuration file?

The Varnish configuration file will be located in the /etc/varnish directory in CentOS 7. 

To make Varnish work in front of Apache, you will need to set up some basic configurations. 

By default Varnish listens on port 6081 . 

You will need to change port 6081 to 80 so that website requests access the Varnish cache first.


What is varnish WordPress?

Varnish is a full-page cache and HTTP preprocessor which can be used to speed up requests for a WordPress site. 

Setting up Varnish is a technical task, as it requires installing and configuring a system package on a web server, rather than just installing a plugin.

Install and Configure Mahara on Ubuntu

This article covers how to install Mahara. Basically, Mahara is a popular ePortfolio and social networking system that helps educators to develop a digital classroom in a remote learning environment and track student's progress. 

Mahara also has many non-student applications. You can use it to build a blog, a resume-builder, a file-repository, or a competency framework.

Mahara is a fully featured web application to build your electronic portfolio. 

You can upload files, create journals, embed social media resources from the web and collaborate with other users in groups. 


To install Mahara on Ubuntu:

1. 1. Login to your VPS via SSH

ssh user@vps

2. Update the system

[user]$ sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get -y upgrade

3. Install MariaDB

To install MariaDB, run the following command:

[user]$ sudo apt-get install -y mariadb-server

4. Create MariaDB database for Mahara

Next, we need to create a database for our Mahara installation.

[user]$ mysql -u root -p
MariaDB [(none)]> CREATE DATABASE mahara character set UTF8;
MariaDB [(none)]> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON mahara.* TO 'maharauser'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'your-password';
MariaDB [(none)]> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
MariaDB [(none)]> \q

Do not forget to replace 'your-password' with a strong password.

5. Install Apache2 Web Server

Install Apache2 web server

[user]$ sudo apt-get install apache2

6. Install PHP

Install PHP and required PHP modules

To install the latest stable version of PHP version 5 and all necessary modules, run:

[user]$ sudo apt-get install php5 libapache2-mod-php5 php5-mcrypt php5-mysql php5-gd

7. Download and extract Mahara

Download and extract the latest version of Mahara on your server:

[user]$ sudo cd /opt && wget https://launchpad.net/mahara/16.04/16.04.1/+download/mahara-16.04.1.zip
[user]$ sudo unzip mahara-16.04.1.zip
[user]$ sudo mv mahara-16.04.1 /var/www/html/mahara
Create Mahara’s upload directory
[user]$ sudo mkdir /var/www/html/mahara/upload/

8. Configure Mahara

Create Mahara’s config.php

In the Mahara ‘htdocs’ directory there is config-dist.php file. Make a copy of this called config.php.

[user]$ cd /var/www/html/mahara/htdocs/
[user]$ sudo cp config-dist.php config.php

Open the config.php and make the necessary changes where appropriate.

[user]$ sudo nano config.php
$cfg->dbtype   = 'mysql';
$cfg->dbhost   = 'localhost';
$cfg->dbport   = null;
$cfg->dbname   = 'mahara';
$cfg->dbuser   = 'maharauser';
$cfg->dbpass   = 'your-password';
$cfg->dataroot = '/var/www/html/mahara/upload/';

All files have to be readable by the web server, so we need to set a proper ownership

[user]$ sudo chown www-data:www-data -R /var/www/html/mahara/

9. Configure Apache Web Server

Create a new virtual host directive in Apache. For example, create a new Apache configuration file named ‘mahara.conf’ on your virtual server:

[user]$ sudo touch /etc/apache2/sites-available/mahara.conf
[user]$ sudo ln -s /etc/apache2/sites-available/mahara.conf /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/mahara.conf
[user]$ sudo nano /etc/apache2/sites-available/mahara.conf
Then, add the following lines:
<VirtualHost *:80>
ServerAdmin admin@yourdomain.com
DocumentRoot /var/www/html/mahara/htdocs/
ServerName your-domain.com
ServerAlias www.your-domain.com
<Directory /var/www/html/mahara/htdocs/>
Options FollowSymLinks
AllowOverride All
Order allow,deny
allow from all
</Directory>
ErrorLog /var/log/apache2/your-domain.com-error_log
CustomLog /var/log/apache2/your-domain.com-access_log common
</VirtualHost>

10. Restart and Verify

Restart the Apache web server for the changes to take effect:

[user]$ sudo service apache2 restart

Open your favorite web browser, navigate to http://your-domain.com/ and if you configured everything correctly the Mahara installer should be starting.

MySQL crash – Causes Recovery and Prevention methods

This article covers methods to fix and prevent MySQL downtime. Basically, many issues such as resource limits, #database table errors, file system errors, and so on, can lead to a MySQL crash.


To fix MySQL errors in cPanel?

You can also restart the MySQL service from WHM.

1. Login to WHM.

2. Navigate to Restart Services.

3. Now you can restart the MySQL service by clicking the icon “SQL Server(MySQL)”.


To use mysqlcheck, follow these steps:

1. As the root user, type the following command: cd /var/lib/mysql.

2. Replace the database with the name of the database that you want to check.

3. Mysqlcheck checks the specified database and tables.


How do I know if MySQL is running?

We check the status with the service mysql status command. We use the mysqladmin tool to check if MySQL server is running. 

The -u option specifies the user which pings the server. 

The -p option is a password for the user.


What does repair table do MySQL?

REPAIR TABLE repairs a possibly corrupted table, for certain storage engines only. 

This statement requires SELECT and INSERT privileges for the table. Although normally you should never have to run REPAIR TABLE , if disaster strikes, this statement is very likely to get back all your data from a MyISAM table.


What causes MySQL #tables to crash?

The major cause of the database corruption is the lack of free disk space on the server.

Other possible causes of MySQL table crashes include operating system problems, power failures, hardware issues, unexpected MySQL server termination, data corruption due to external programs, and so on.


To access your #MySQL database in Linux, please follow these steps:

1. Log into your Linux web server via Secure Shell.

2. Open the MySQL client program on the server in the /usr/bin directory.

3. Type in the following syntax to access your database: $ mysql -h {hostname} -u username -p {databasename} Password: {your password}

libvirtd failed to start - Fix it Now

This article covers how to resolve the error 'libvirtd failed to start' which happens while manually trying to start libvirt daemon. 

To resolve this #libvirtd #error, Try journalctl -u libvirtd.service and see if the full log for the service has more information.

You can manually install "libxslt" to resolve the problem.

Also you can try re-installing the packages that libvirtd/KVM requires and did a full system update. 

After that, reboot the server, and libvirtd.service will be working fine.

How to set up phpBB Forum on a website through cPanel

This article covers phpBB which is a completely free open-source Forum Software. It has lots of features while maintaining efficiency and ease of use. 

#phpBB, which is an abbreviation for PHP Bulletin Board, is one of the best free and open-source forum scripts for creating a forum. 


There are two ways to install phpBB on a website:

1. You can #install phpBB manually

2. Install phpBB via #cPanel Softaculous Apps Installer


To create a forum in phpBB:

1. Click Forums.

2. Enter the name of the new forum here.

3. Click Create new forum.

4. Enter a description for the new forum here.

5. Click Submit. 

That's it! The forum has been successfully created.


To Create a phpBB Forum:

1. Download and Install phpBB. The first thing you'll need to do is download the phpBB software.

2. Register Your phpBB Forum Administrator Account.

3. Set Up Your phpBB Forum.

4. Start Creating Content.


phpBB’s best features that you can use to help launch your first online forum:

1. Responsive design — supports the latest version of HTML5 and CSS3, thus providing you with a responsive and cross-browser compatible design.

2. Search engine crawler handling — comes with configurations and access control for over 100 crawlers for board optimization.

3. Unread message tracking — notifies users whether or not they have seen new published posts and topics.

4. Private message system — allows users to send direct messages to each other via the forum.

5. COPPA registration — prevents underage users from registering to the forum.

6. OAuth login — allows users to register using Google, Bit.ly, or Facebook accounts.

7. Data management — supports various popular database management tools like MySQL, Oracle Database, and SQLite.


Reasons why you should consider creating an online forum:

1. Encourage discussion and feedback — users can use the available space to exchange ideas and give you insights into the quality of your content for further improvement.

2. Support audience research — lets you observe visitor preferences and browsing habits in a closed environment.

3. Build a community — having great communication and sharing similar interests with other people will give your users a sense of belonging to a community.

Install OpenBSD As Guest Operating System using KVM virt-install

This article covers how to install OpenBSD as guest operating while using KVM. OpenBSD is well know for focus on security features such as Memory protection, cryptography, randomization and much more in default base installation.
virt-install provides the option of supporting graphics for the guest operating system installation. This is achieved through use of QEMU.

virt-install is a command line tool for creating new KVM, Xen, or Linux container guests using the libvirt hypervisor management library
The virt-install tool provides a number of options that can be passed on the command line.

To see a complete list of options run the following command:
# virt-install --help

Install vnStat in Linux to monitor network traffic

This article covers how to install and configure vnStat in Linux. Also, you will see how to resolve some common errors relating to it.
#vnStat (view network statistics) is a network utility for the #Linux operating system.
It uses a command line interface. vnStat command is a console-based network #traffic #monitor.
It keeps a log of hourly, daily and monthly network traffic for the selected interface(s) but is not a packet sniffer.

Features of vnStat:
1. quick and simple to install and get running
2. gathered statistics persists through system reboots
3. can monitor multiple interfaces at the same time
4. data retention duration is fully user configurable on the fly
5. months can be configured to follow billing period
6. light, minimal resource usage
7. same low cpu usage regardless of traffic
8. can be used without root permissions
9. online color configuration editor

Hardening an Ubuntu Server

This article covers the the importance of passwords, user roles, console security, and #firewalls all of which are imperative to protecting Linux servers.
Hardening an #Ubuntu server is a critical step in any server setup procedure.
Any time that a new server is being brought up to host services, whether production, development, internal or external, the server's operating system must be made as secure as possible.


To make your Ubuntu #Linux server secure:
1. Secure Server Connectivity
2. Establish and Use a Secure Connection.
3. Use SSH Keys Authentication.
4. Secure File Transfer Protocol.
5. Secure Sockets Layer Certificates.
6. Use Private Networks and VPNs.
7. Monitor Login Attempts.
8. Manage Users.
9. Establish Password Requirements.

Install Linux Software Via Command line

This article will guide you on methods to install #Linux #Software via command line. #Debian, Ubuntu, Mint, and other Debian-based distributions all use . deb files and the dpkg package management system. There are two ways to install apps via this system. You can use the apt application to install from a repository, or you can use the dpkg app to install apps from .


To compile a program from a source in Linux:

i. Open a console.

ii. Use the #command cd to navigate to the correct folder. If there is a README file with installation instructions, use that instead.

iii. Extract the files with one of the commands.

iv. ./configure.

v. make.

vi. sudo make install (or with checkinstall ).


To Check os version in Linux:

1. Open the #terminal application (bash shell)

2. For remote server login using the ssh: ssh user@server-name.

3. Type any one of the following command to find os name and version in Linux: cat /etc/os-release. lsb_release -a. hostnamectl.

4. Type the following command to find Linux kernel version: uname -r.

KVM hypervisor How it Works

This article will guide you on how the KVM #hypervisor works. Basically, KVM is a type-2 hypervisor (installed on top of another OS, in this case some flavor of #Linux). 

It runs, however, like a type-1 hypervisor and can provide the power and functionality of even the most complex and powerful type-1 hypervisors, depending on the tools that are used with the KVM package itself.

KVM (for Kernel-based Virtual Machine) is a full virtualization solution for Linux on x86 hardware containing virtualization extensions (Intel VT or AMD-V).

Using KVM, one can run multiple virtual machines running unmodified Linux or Windows images.

1. The main difference between Type 1 vs. Type 2 hypervisors is that Type 1 runs on bare metal and Type 2 runs on top of an operating system. 

2. Each hypervisor type also has its own pros and cons and specific use cases.

3. Xen is better than #KVM in terms of virtual storage support, high availability, enhanced security, virtual network support, power management, fault tolerance, real-time support, and virtual CPU scalability.

4. A Type 1 hypervisor takes the place of the host operating system. 

5. Type 1 hypervisors are highly efficient because they have direct access to physical hardware. 

6. This also increases their security, because there is nothing in between them and the CPU that an attacker could compromise.

NTFS partition failed to mount

This article will guide you on methods to resolve NTFS partition failed to mount error. 

Causes of NTFS partition failed to mount error:

1. File system errors

After using #NTFS drive in #Windows you have detached it without removing it safely. Therefore NTFS journal has not been emptied from temporary streams.

To fix the problem:

i. Open Disk Utility under #Mac OS X. 

ii. You will find it in Applications – Utilities.

iii. Choose NTFS partition on the left and find First Aid tab on the right. 

iv. Under this tab you will find Verify Disk option. 

v. Run Verify and then Repair.

Install OpenCV on Ubuntu

This article will guide you on different methods to install OpenCV on #Ubuntu 20.04. Even though installing the packaged version from the Ubuntu repository is easier, building OpenCV from source gives you more flexibility, and it should be your first option when installing OpenCV.

#OpenCV is the huge open-source library for the computer vision, machine learning, and image processing and now it plays a major role in real-time operation which is very important in today's systems. 

By using it, one can process images and videos to identify objects, faces, or even handwriting of a human.


To install the latest OpenCV version from the source:

1. Install the required dependencies:

sudo apt install build-essential cmake git pkg-config libgtk-3-dev \
    libavcodec-dev libavformat-dev libswscale-dev libv4l-dev \
    libxvidcore-dev libx264-dev libjpeg-dev libpng-dev libtiff-dev \
    gfortran openexr libatlas-base-dev python3-dev python3-numpy \
    libtbb2 libtbb-dev libdc1394-22-dev

2. Clone the OpenCV’s and OpenCV contrib repositories:

mkdir ~/opencv_build && cd ~/opencv_build
git clone https://github.com/opencv/opencv.git
git clone https://github.com/opencv/opencv_contrib.git

3. Once the download is complete, create a temporary build directory, and switch to it:

cd ~/opencv_build/opencv
mkdir build && cd build

4. Set up the OpenCV build with CMake:

cmake -D CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=RELEASE \
    -D CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=/usr/local \
    -D INSTALL_C_EXAMPLES=ON \
    -D INSTALL_PYTHON_EXAMPLES=ON \
    -D OPENCV_GENERATE_PKGCONFIG=ON \
    -D OPENCV_EXTRA_MODULES_PATH=~/opencv_build/opencv_contrib/modules \
    -D BUILD_EXAMPLES=ON ..

5. Start the compilation process:

make -j8

6. Install OpenCV with:

sudo make install


To uninstall OpenCV Linux: 

i. If you installed OpenCV from package manager, it's best to remove those packages. Check: apt list --installed | grep opencv

ii. If you built it yourself, and you still got the build folder, run sudo make uninstall from the OpenCV build directory.

DEBIAN_FRONTEND noninteractive in Docker

This article will guide you on why you should not set the DEBIAN_FRONTEND value to noninteractive is a 'cosmetic' change. If you really need to change its setting, make sure to change it back to its default value afterward. Simply prepending an apt command with DEBIAN_FRONTEND=something does not persist after the single command to which it is applied. 

apt-get update downloads the package lists from the repositories and "updates" them to get information on the newest versions of packages and their dependencies. 

It will do this for all repositories and PPAs.

To Preserve Configuration Files:

During package installation or upgrade, Debian may wish to prompt the user on overwriting a configuration file. 

This preference can be appended to the installation command:

apt-get install -q -y \
-o Dpkg::Options::="--force-confdef" \
-o Dpkg::Options::="--force-confold" \
postfix

This command will instruct the installer to quiet any messages, assume yes, and then upgrade configuration files if no changes are present in the new package.

OpenLDAP and phpLDAPadmin on Linux

This article will guide you on how to install #OpenLDAP and phpLDAPadmin on #Ubuntu. Also, we covered the prospective error affacting OpenLDAP and phpLDAPadmin and its solution as well.

#LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) is an open and cross platform protocol used for directory services authentication. LDAP provides the communication language that applications use to communicate with other directory services servers.

#Kerberos is used to manage credentials securely (authentication) while LDAP is used for holding authoritative information about the accounts, such as what they're allowed to access (authorization), the user's full name and uid.

To access #phpLDAPadmin:

Point your browser to http://IP_OF_SERVER/phpldapadmin (IP_OF_SERVER is the actual IP address of your LDAP server). 

From the main window, click the login button in the left pane. 

When prompted, you will log into your DN and enter the password for the admin user created during the slapd reconfiguration.

FFmpeg on CentOS

This article will guide you on how to install FFMPEG on #CentOS and fix its related #errors. FFmpeg is a powerful tool that can do almost anything with #multimedia files.

FFmpeg is a standard package on many #linux systems. 

You can check if it is installed with a #command like dpkg -s ffmpeg . 

If it is not installed, you should be able to install with your system's package manager. i.e. sudo apt-get install ffmpeg or search 'ffmpeg' in the Software Center on Ubuntu.

To run #FFmpeg in #Linux:

1. Start by updating the packages list: sudo apt update.

2. Next, install FFmpeg by typing the following command: sudo apt install ffmpeg.

3. To validate that the package is installed properly use the ffmpeg -version command which prints the FFmpeg version: ffmpeg -version. 

Node js Application with Docker on Ubuntu

This article will guide you on how to build a Node.js Application with Docker on Ubuntu. npm install downloads a package and it's dependencies. #npm install can be run with or without arguments. When run without arguments, npm install downloads dependencies defined in a package. json file and generates a node_modules folder with the installed modules.

The #docker build command builds Docker images from a Dockerfile and a “context”. 

A build's context is the set of files located in the specified PATH or URL . The build process can refer to any of the files in the context. 

With Dockerfile written, you can build the image using the following command: $ docker build .

Containerizing an #application is the process of making it able to run and deploy under Docker containers and similar technologies that encapsulate an application with its operating system environment (a full system image).

Some Docker #commands:

1. docker run – Runs a command in a new container.

2. docker start – Starts one or more stopped containers.

3. docker stop – Stops one or more running containers.

4. docker build – Builds an image form a Docker file.

5. docker pull – Pulls an image or a repository from a #registry.

Install Minecraft Server on Ubuntu 20.04

This article will guide you on how to install a Minecraft server on #Ubuntu 20.04 and set up a daily backup. You can now launch the Minecraft client, connect to the server and start Minecraft adventure. 

Setting up a #Minecraft server on #Linux (Ubuntu 12.04) is a fairly easy task on the command line.

Of the previously given ports, the only one I want you to memorize is 25565, because that is Minecraft's default port number. What we want to do is forward inbound traffic on port 25565 to our Minecraft server that's located on the private internal network.

Process of Setting up Minecraft Server on Ubuntu:

1. Create New Minecraft User. Add the new “minecraftuser” to the “sudo” group.

2. Add Minecraft User To Sudo Group.

3. Switch To Minecraft User.

4. Install wget Package.

5. Install Java OpenJDK package.

6. Check Installed Java Version.

7. Install Screen Package.

8. Create A Minecraft Directory.


To Install #Steam from Ubuntu package repository :

i. Confirm that the multiverse Ubuntu repository is enabled: $ sudo add-apt-repository multiverse $ sudo apt update.

ii. Install Steam package: $ sudo apt install steam.

iii. Use your desktop menu to start Steam or alternatively execute the following command: $ steam.

MySQL is not running

This article will guide you on methods to resolve MySQL #error 'MySQL is not running'. Basically, this MySQL error occurs due to many reasons that include stopping MySQL improperly, tables crashing and so on. 

Both MySQL and #Microsoft SQL Server (MSSQL) are widely used enterprise database systems. MySQL is an open-source relational #database management system (RDBMS), while MSSQL Server is a Microsoft-developed RDBMS. 

Enterprises can choose between multiple #MSSQL Server editions to suit their individual needs and budgets.

Why #MySQL is not opening?

1. You can also check the MySQL service is running in background or not. 

2. To do that open Task manager ( Press CTRL + SHIFT + ESC simultaneously ) and look for mysqld service in background process section. 

3. If it isn't listed there then the service is stopped or disabled.

OpenVPN on Linux

This article will guide you on steps to set up OpenVPN on Linux.

OpenVPN config files (. ovpn) offer an easy way to configure #OpenVPN on your computer to work with our servers. These files contain the correct cipher types, #Certificate Authority, Certificate, and Private Keys. You can use these files on Mac, Linux, #Windows, Android, and iOS.

By default the OpenVPN Access Server comes configured with OpenVPN daemons that listen on port 1194 UDP, and OpenVPN daemons that listen on port 443 TCP. While the best connection for an OpenVPN #tunnel is via the #UDP port, we implement TCP 443 as a fallback method.

To Set up OpenVPN Server on Ubuntu #Linux:

1. Find and note down your public IP address.

2. Download openvpn-install.sh script.

3. Run openvpn-install.sh to install OpenVPN server.

4. Connect an OpenVPN server using iOS/Android/Linux/Windows client.

5. Verify your connectivity.

Install Firejail in Linux

This article will guide you on steps to #install #Firejail in Linux. Basically, Firejail reduces the risk of security breaches by restricting the untrusted applications and separating them from other parts of the system. 

#Sandboxing involves providing a safe environment for a program or #software so that you can play around with it without hurting your system. It actually keeps your program isolated from the rest of the system, by using any one of the different methods available in the #Linux #kernel.

To Install the Firejail Software:

1. Open up a terminal window.

2. Issue the command sudo apt-get install firejail.

3. Type your sudo password and hit Enter.

4. If prompted, type y to allow the installation to continue.

5. Allow the installation to complete.

Install XRDP Server

This article will guide you on steps to install XRDP #Server on #Ubuntu. To provide remote access via RDP, a Windows native protocol, XRDP behind the scenes uses #VNC, a remote access protocol more common in Linux.

After #xrdp is installed you can start the server with the following command:

Service xrdp start.

Service xrdp-sesman start (Thanks to Greg for pointing that out) — UPDATE!!

If want it to auto start after reboot you need to run this command also: update-rc.d xrdp enable (It will not start xrdp-sesman automatic).


To use XRDP Linux:

1. With #Ubuntu 18.04 first install xrdp: sudo apt-get -y install xrdp.

2. Next, one may adjust the configuration file: sudo nano /etc/xrdp/xrdp.ini.

3. Set encryption level to high: encrypt_level=high.

4. Next, allow just RDP through the local firewall: sudo ufw allow 3389/tcp.

Install Vesta control panel in Ubuntu

This article will guide you on easy steps to install Vesta control panel in #Ubuntu. VestaCP is a control panel for Linux with many features that facilitate the administration of a #server. 

Vesta Development team provides an installer script that automates setting up of Vesta hosting control panel on Ubuntu / Debian and RHEL based Linux distributions. Login to your Ubuntu / #Debian system and ensure the system is updated. Download #Vesta installer. Run install with sudo if you're logged in as standard user.

To install vestaCP on Ubuntu:

1. # Connect to your server as root via #SSH

ssh root@your.server

2. # Download installation script

curl -O http://vestacp.com/pub/vst-install.sh

3. # Run it

bash vst-install.sh

To change my VestaCP port:

i. conf file and change the port that NGINX listens on from 8083 to 2083 (or the port you chose to use). listen 2083; 

ii. Once the port has been changed, press CTRL+X , followed by y , and then hit enter to save your changes. 

iii. The final step is removing the firewall entry for the previous port we were using.

GlusterFS install CentOS 7

This article will guide you on the steps to install and setup #GlusterFS. 

GlusterFS is a scalable #network filesystem suitable for data-intensive tasks such as cloud storage and media streaming. 

GlusterFS has a client and #server component. Servers are typically deployed as storage bricks, with each server running a glusterfsd daemon to export a local file system as a #volume.

To install GlusterFS:

1. Have at least two nodes. CentOS 7 on two servers named "server1" and "server2".

2. Format and mount the bricks.

3. Installing GlusterFS.

4. #Iptables configuration.

5. Configure the trusted pool.

6. Set up a GlusterFS volume.

7. Testing the GlusterFS volume.

How to install OBS on Linux Windows and MacOS

This article will guide you on steps to #install #OBS on #Windows. Also, we saw some common errors that we came across while installing OBS.

Open Broadcaster Software (OBS) is a free and open-source cross-platform streaming and recording program built with Qt and maintained by the OBS Project. There are versions of OBS Studio available for Microsoft Windows, macOS, and Linux distributions. OBS is funded on Open Collective.

As a standard Windows application, OBS should run fine on Windows 10 without any issues in the core program. However, OBS makes heavy use of advanced hardware features, particularly on your GPU such as texture sharing and hardware encoding. Windows 10 will come with new #drivers for your hardware, including your #GPU.

To set up OBS for #streaming:

1. Run the auto-configuration wizard. When you load OBS Studio for the first time you should see the Auto-Configuration Wizard.

2. Set up your audio devices. By default, OBS Studio is set to capture your system default desktop audio device and microphone.

3. Add your sources for video.

4. Test your stream and record settings.

ISPConfig DKIM to verify mail server

This article will guide you on how to enable #DKIM on ISPConfig control panel. DKIM is an authentication standard for a domain name that sends an email, for use against spam and phishing. 

It's possible to have more than one DKIM key published in your #DNS records. So, the DKIM selector is important for ensuring that your emails can be properly authenticated. The <selector> field specifies which DKIM key you're using, and the <header domain> field is filled with your domain name.

To generate DKIM Record in #ISPConfig:

1. Login to ISPConfig.

2. Click on Email.

3. Inside Email Accounts >> Select Domain and click on Mail Domain name.

4. Click on #DomainKeys Identified Mail (DKIM).

5. Tick Enable DKIM and Click on Generate DKIM Private-key Button.

6. Copy #DNS Record and add it to your DNS with its DKIM Selector.

7. Click on Save Button.

Install Drush on Drupal 8

This article will guide you on steps to #install #Drush in #Drupal 8. Drush is a command-line utility to manage Drupal #CMS. For this installation of the Drush scripting interface, we will be working primarily on the command line. This is because Drush is a command line interface, and all of the commands you will use will need to be issued from there.

Drush is the command line shell and Unix scripting interface for Drupal.

To Install a global Drush via #Composer:

1. Install Composer globally.

2. Install the cgr tool following the instructions in that project.

3. Add composer's bin directory to the system path by placing export PATH="$HOME/.

4. Install latest stable Drush: cgr drush/drush .

5. Verify that Drush works: drush status.

How Chmod 777 works

This article will guide you on how to give #Chmod 777 to folders and files in #Linux. We also discussed the risks and more information about file permissions. 

If you are managing a Linux system, it is crucial to know how the Linux #permissions work.

You should never set 777 (rwxrwxrwx) permissions #files and #directories permissions. 777 means that anyone can do anything with those files.

To Give Root Privileges to a User in Linux:

1. Adding to Root Group using usermod. Let see how we can grant normal user root access by adding to root group.

2. Adding to #Root Group using Useradd Command.

3. Editing /etc/passwd file.

4. Setting as Sudo User.

Add User To Group in Linux

This article will guide you on how to add a #user to a #group in #Linux. The group permissions apply only to the group that has been assigned to the file or directory, they will not effect the actions of other users. The others permissions apply to all other users on the system, this is the permission group that you want to watch the most.

Groups can be thought of as levels of #privilege. A person who is part of a group can view or modify files belonging to that group, depending on the permissions of that file. User belonging to a group has privileges of that group, for example - sudo groups lets you run software as super user.

To view all groups present on the system simply open the /etc/group file. Each line in this file represents information for one group. Another option is to use the getent command which displays entries from #databases configured in /etc/nsswitch.


To Create a New Sudo User:

1. Log in to your server as the root user. #ssh root@server_ip_address.

2. Use the adduser command to add a new user to your system. Be sure to replace username with the user that you want to create.

3. Use the usermod command to add the user to the wheel group.

4. Test sudo access on new user account.


To List Users in Linux:

i. Get a List of All Users using the /etc/passwd File.

ii. Get a List of all Users using the getent Command.

iii. Check whether a user exists in the Linux system.

iv. System and Normal Users.

Modprobe vboxguest failed in Ubuntu

This article will guide you on the easiest way to fix #modprobe #vboxguest error. Basically, the modprobe vboxguest #error occurs when we are installing the virtual box in #Ubuntu.

The primary benefits of virtual memory include freeing #applications from having to manage a shared memory space, ability to share memory used by libraries between processes, increased security due to #memory isolation, and being able to conceptually use more memory than might be physically available.

To Install Guest Additions for #Windows:

1. Launch the guest OS in VirtualBox and click on Devices and Install #Guest Additions. 

2. The AutoPlay window opens on the guest #OS and click on the Run #VBox #Windows Additions executable. 

3. Click yes when the UAC screen comes up. 

4. Now simply follow through the #installation wizard.

Ansible Playbook to Install WordPress with LAMP

This article will guide you on the step to follow to use #Ansible Playbook to install #WordPress with #LAMP on #Ubuntu 18.04.

In Ansible, the role is the primary mechanism for breaking a #playbook into multiple files. This simplifies writing complex #playbooks, and it makes them easier to reuse. The breaking of playbook allows you to logically break the playbook into reusable components.

To start using Ansible:

1. Prerequisites.

2. Install Ansible.

3. Establish a manual connection to a managed node.

4. Run your first network Ansible command.

5. Create and run your first network Ansible Playbook.

6. Gathering facts from network devices.

RoundCube CONNECTION FAILED Database Error

This article will guide you on the different methods to fix Database Error: Connection Failed error shows up due to database errors or #PHP #errors. 

Establishing a Database Connection #Error basically means that for some reason or another the PHP code was unable to connect to your #MySQL database to retrieve the information it needs to fully build that page. That's why the error is always shown on a blank page because there is no information about your site as it is not connected to your database.

Establishing a Database Connection Error Occur due to:

1. Incorrect Login Credentials.

2. Corrupt #Database

Deploy Multiple WordPress Applications On Ubuntu

This article will guide you on how to deploy multiple #WordPress applications on #Ubuntu with #Docker.
Docker is a #tool designed to make it easier to create, deploy, and run applications by using #containers. Containers allow a developer to package up an application with all of the parts it needs, such as libraries and other #dependencies, and ship it all out as one package.
The Objectives to deploy a docker container:
1. Package a sample web application into a Docker #image.
2. Upload the Docker image to Container #Registry.
3. Create a GKE #cluster.
4. Deploy the sample #app to the cluster.
5. Manage autoscaling for the deployment.
6. Expose the sample app to the internet.
7. Deploy a new version of the sample app.

MySQL BLOB Data Type

This article will guide you on how #MySQL #BLOB data type works in storing and displaying images with #PHP on Ubuntu 18.04. A BLOB is a binary large object that can hold a variable amount of data.
A Binary Large OBject (BLOB) is a collection of #binary data stored as a single entity in a database management system. Blobs are typically images, audio or other multimedia objects, though sometimes binary executable code is stored as a blob.
The four BLOB types are #TINYBLOB , #BLOB , #MEDIUMBLOB , and #LONGBLOB . These differ only in the maximum length of the values they can hold. The four TEXT types are TINYTEXT , TEXT , MEDIUMTEXT , and LONGTEXT .
The size of blob in MySQL:
TINYBLOB - Up to 255 bytes - 1 byte
BLOB - Up to 64 Kb - 2 bytes
MEDIUMBLOB - Up to 16 Mb - 3 bytes
LONGBLOB - Up to 4 Gb - 1 Bytes

List installed software Linux

This article will guide you on different methods to #list all #software, the number of #packages available on the server along with the method to copy them and use them when we reinstall our operating system(#OS).
Yum automatically refreshes the list of packages, whilst with apt-get you must execute a command 'apt-get update' to get the fresh packages.
To list of installed programs in #Linux:
1. Aptitude-based distributions (#Ubuntu, #Debian, etc): dpkg -l.
2. RPM-based distributions (#Fedora, #RHEL, etc): rpm -qa.
3. pkg*-based distributions (#OpenBSD, #FreeBSD, etc): pkg_info.
4. Portage-based distributions (#Gentoo, etc): equery list or eix -I.
5. pacman-based distributions (Arch Linux, etc): pacman -Q.

Add Glance Cloud images to OpenStack

This article will guide you on steps to add #Glance #Cloud images to #OpenStack with different #Linux distributions which enables users to discover, register, and retrieve virtual machine images. 

After images are created they should be registered in Openstack Glance - #image operation service.

Upload Image Into Glance:

1. Replace <NAME> with the name that users will refer to the disk image by. 

2. Replace <IMAGE_FILE> with the local path to the image file to upload.

Nagios Web interface not working after upgrade

This article will guide you on how to fix #Nagios web interface not #loading #issue as well as its cause.

Before fixing, First, you need to make sure you have installed all required nagios #packages like nagios3, nagios3-core, and nagios3-cgi. Ensure you did not miss any required package.

If you are still not able to login, you can look at apache configuration and use htpasswd tool to add new username/password to be authorized. You need to find a file like /etc/nagios3/htpasswd.users. This may also be different on redhat. You can recreate the file or create another username/password.

Cant locate LWP UserAgent pm in @INC

This article will guide you on how to get rid of error "Can't locate LWP/UserAgent.pm in @INC" which occurs in the process of installing #applications like CSF in the DirectAdmin server or any other #Linux #distros. 

libwww-perl (also known as LWP) is a collection of #Perl #modules that provide a simple and consistent programming interface (API) to the World-Wide Web.

In order to install and use this #package you will need Perl version

5.8.1 or better:

Some modules within this package depend on other packages that are distributed separately from Perl.  We recommend that you have the following #packages installed before you install

libwww-perl:

i. Digest-MD5

ii. Encode-Locale

iii. HTML-Form

iv. HTML-Parser

v. HTML-Tagset

vi. HTTP-Cookies

vii. HTTP-Date

viii. HTTP-Message

ix. HTTP-Negotiate

x. libnet

xi. LWP-MediaTypes

xii. MIME-Base64

xiii. Net-HTTP

xiv. URI

xv. WWW-RobotRules


If you want to access sites using the https protocol, then you need to

install the LWP::Protocol::https module from CPAN.

OpenLDAP on Ubuntu Steps to install it

This article will guide you on the steps to #install and configure #OpenLDAP on #Ubuntu.

OpenLDAP is a open source implementation of #LDAP in Linux.

If it's your #server, you will know just by looking at the running services. When you are there, run #netstat and probably you will see LDAP listening only on localhost . Remotely, if the server is listening on #localhost , you cannot know just by running nmap , the port will not answer for the public #interface.

To Install and Configure OpenLDAP on #CentOS / #RHEL #Linux:

1. Install OpenLDAP Packages. On CentOS and RedHat, use yum install as shown below, to install the openldap related packages. 

2. LDAP #Config Files. config. 

3. Create olcRootDN Account as Admin. 

4. Create olcRootPW Root Password. 

5. Create olcSuffix #Domain Name. 

6. Verify The #Configuration Files. 

7. Start the LDAP Server. 

8. Verify the LDAP Search.

Setting up client access over private IP address to MySQL on Compute Engine

This article will guide you on setting up client access over private IP address to #MySQL on #Compute #Engine helps advanced usage of parameters and specific performance needs.

To allow IP to connect to MySQL:

1. Edit MySQL Config File. 1.1 Access mysqld.cnf File. 

2. Set up Firewall to Allow Remote MySQL Connection. While editing the configuration file, you probably observed that the default MySQL port is 3306. 

3. Connect to Remote MySQL #Server. Your remote server is now ready to accept connections.

How To Install MariaDB on Ubuntu Focal Fossa

This article will guide you on steps to install #MariaDB from the #Ubuntu #repositories and from the official MariaDB repositories. You can install MariaDB in two different ways.

To install MariaDB on Ubuntu, follow these steps:

1. Update #packages index. sudo apt update.

2. Once the packages list is updated, install MariaDB by issuing the following command: sudo apt install mariadb-server.

3. The MariaDB service will start automatically.

The default data directory for the MariaDB database server is /var/lib/mysql. The configuration file of MariaDB database server is /etc/mysql/mariadb. conf. d/50-server.

Update Ubuntu from 16 04 to 18 04 via command line

This article will guide you on steps to #upgrade #Ubuntu #version.

To update Ubuntu using #terminal:

1. Open the terminal application.

2. For remote server use the ssh command to login (e.g. ssh user@server-name )

3. Fetch update software list by running #sudo apt-get update command.

4. Update Ubuntu #software by running sudo apt-get upgrade command.

5. Reboot the Ubuntu box if required by running sudo reboot.

Install Cockpit Web Console on Ubuntu

This article will guide you on the steps to #install the #Cockpit web console on #Ubuntu. Basically, Cockpit web console provides a #graphical overview of the core components and overall status of a #Linux #machine.

To access cockpit in Linux:

1. Open the Interface by Opening a web #browser and enter the server's IP address with port 9090 in the address bar. If the web browser is on the Cockpit server, open localhost:9090 or hostname:9090.

2. Log into the Cockpit interface with the same user name and password that you would normally use to log into the #system.

VirtualHost cannot occur within virtualhost section in WAMP

This article will guide on steps to fix #VirtualHost cannot occur within virtualhost section in #WAMP which occurs while we try to add VirtualHost #directive and reconfigure #vhost.

Directory directive works only for filesystem objects (e.g. /var/www/mypage, C:\www\mypage), while Location directive works only for URLs (the part after your site #domain name, e.g. www.mypage.com/mylocation).

To Configure name-based virtual #hosts:

1. Install Apache webserver. Make sure you have installed #Apache webserver. 

2. Create web directory for each host. 

3. Create demo web pages for each host. 

4. Create configuration file for each host. 

5. Enable virtual host configuration files. 

6. Test Virtual hosts.

Steps To Install Spark On Ubuntu

This article will guide you on how to install #Apache spark on a single #Ubuntu system. Apache Spark is a distributed open-source, general-purpose framework used in cluster computing environments for analyzing big data. You will be able to perform basic tests before you start configuring a #Spark cluster and performing advanced actions.

Spark is not a #database so it cannot "store data". It processes #data and stores it temporarily in memory, but that's not presistent storage. It can access data that's in: #SQL Databases (Anything that can be connected using JDBC #driver).

Manage a Linux Server with systemd

Like the init #daemon, #systemd is a daemon that manages other daemons, which, including systemd itself, are background #processes. systemd is the first daemon to start during booting and the last daemon to terminate during shutdown.

This article will guide you on how to manage #Linux server using systemd. Additionally, we saw the different commands used to Manage Linux serves with systemd. While systemd is compatible with SysV and Linux Standard Base (LSB) init scripts, systemd is meant to be a drop-in replacement for these older ways of getting a Linux system running.

To start (activate) a service , you will run the command 'systemctl start my_service. service', this will start the service immediately in the current session. 

To enable a service at boot , you will run 'systemctl enable my_service. service'.

Deploying Kohana PHP application on Debian

This article will guide you on how to deploy Kohana on #Debian. Kohana offers powerful event handling, multiple session drivers, simple database abstraction using #SQL helpers, and libraries that transparently handle external APIs. Its generous BSD license lets developers use and modify the framework to build commercial applications.

The #AppDynamics platform provides full, code-level visibility into the performance of your PHP application built on the Kohana framework. With rapid installation and the most scalable #architecture in the industry, AppDynamics solutions help you deploy your #applications more quickly and with more confidence.

How To use Systemd to Sandbox Processes On Ubuntu 20 04

This article will guide you how to #Sandbox #Processes on Ubuntu 20.04 with Systemd for Lighttpd using different methods. Here we made the #lighttpd program more secure by using the #systemd sandboxing options. You can use these techniques with any process that systemd manages allowing you to continue to improve the #security of your system.

#Sandboxing is designed to prevent #threats from getting on the #network and is frequently used to inspect untested or untrusted code.

Deploy Laravel using Nginx on Ubuntu

This guide will help to set up Laravel with #Nginx on #Ubuntu 16.04. Laravel is the most popular, free, and open-source #PHP #framework in the world, known for its expressive and elegant syntax.
To move laravel project from localhost to production server, do:
1. Zip your #laravel app files.
2. Export your app's #database then set it up on your server.
3. After you have uploaded your laravel app files, open the . env file found on the root.
4. That's it!, now check your live #site.

Steps to Optimize WordPress on Ubuntu 20 04

This article will guide you on steps to optimize #WordPress on #ubuntu 20.04 by performing some simple and easy steps.
Caching can also help improve your WordPress site's #performance and #speed. #Caching, a core design feature of the HTTP protocol meant to minimize network traffic while improving the perceived responsiveness of the system as a whole, can be used to help minimize load times when implemented on your site.
WordPress offers a number of caching #plugins that are helpful in maintaining a snapshot of your site to serve static HTML elements, reducing the amount of PHP calls and improving page #load speed.
Optimizing Theme Configuration with a lightweight #theme can help your #installation to load more efficiently. A theme will require fewer database calls and by keeping your site free of unnecessary code, your users will have fewer delays in site speed and performance.

Steps to Install GoAccess on Ubuntu

This article will guide you on how to #Install GoAccess on Ubuntu which is a command-line tool and how to use it for analyzing server #logs.
With #GoAccess, you are able to #SSH into any web server you control and view or analyze relevant statistics quickly and securely. Apart from the command-line dashboard interface, it's also capable of displaying the #statistics in other formats such as HTML, JSON, and CSV, which you can use in other contexts or share with others.

Steps To Harden OpenSSH Client on Ubuntu 18 04

This article will guide you on how to harden #OpenSSH Client by following some quick and easy steps.
#Hardening of the #OS is the act of configuring an OS securely, updating it, creating #rules and #policies to help govern the system in a secure manner, and removing unnecessary applications and services. This is done to minimize a computer OS's exposure to threats and to mitigate possible #risk.

Steps to Edit Sudoers File in Linux Process to get it done

This article will guide you on how to edit #Sudoers File in Linux which involves #root privileges, with a special focus on editing the /etc/sudoers file. You can configure who can use #sudo #commands by editing the /etc/sudoers file, or by adding configuration to the /etc/sudoers. To edit the sudoers file, we should always use the #visudo command. This uses your default editor to edit the sudoers configuration.

JupyterLab Environment on Ubuntu 18 04

This article will guide you on the process to set up a JupyterLab Environment on Ubuntu and made it accessible remotely. 

The JupyterLab Credential Store uses a password that you set upon first use. Each credential is encrypted with a hash of your password. The encrypted credentials are stored in the credentialstore file in the #directory you start #JupyterLab from.

You can also create new #environments from within Jupyter Notebook (home screen, Conda tab, and then click the plus sign). And you can create a notebook in any environment you want. Select the "Files" tab on the home screen and click the "New" dropdown menu, and in that menu select a Python environment from the list.

How to configure Redis as PHP Session Handler on Ubuntu 14 04

This article will guide you on the steps to configure Redis as a #PHP Session Handler.  #Redis is a powerful and fast key-value storage service. It can also be used as a #session handler for PHP, enabling scalable PHP #environments. Redis server can be used as a session handler for a PHP application running on Ubuntu and it is a data structure server. 

All of the data is stored in #RAM, so the speed of this system is phenomenal, often performing even better than #Memcached.

Redis is much more than a cache. But unlike a cache, Redis lets you operate on the values. There are 5 data types in Redis - Strings, Sets, Hash, Lists and Sorted Sets. Each data type exposes various #operations.

Method to Install Software From Source on Ubuntu

This article will guide you on steps to #install #software from #source on #Ubuntu. The Complete #command is apt-get which is the easiest way to install files/Softwares #packages.

Once installed, on the command line, you can use dpkg --listfiles packagename . For instance, dpkg --listfiles firefox . 

If you want to see what files a package contains without installing it, then you can install apt-file and use that.

Using Bpytop to monitor Linux and FreeBSD Resources

This article will guide you on how to use Bpytop Monitoring for Linux & FreeBSD Resources.

#Bpytop is a great utility which is useful on your #Linux, #macOS, and #FreeBSD as a #resource #monitor. It is much faster than bashtop and works pretty well as Python 3 is standard on many Unix boxes.

Process to install node js Windows

This article will guide you on how to install Node.js and verify its installation. Additionally, you will also learn how to uninstall it. #Node . js is a runtime environment that allows software developers to launch both the #frontend and #backend of web apps using #JavaScript. Although JS underpins all the processes for app assembly, as a backend #development #environment, Node. js, differs from the frontend environment.

Send NXLogs with SSL TLS to Nagios Log Server

This guide will guide you on how to send NXLogs with SSL/TLS to #Nagios #Log #Server. Encryption ensures that the traffic between the #Windows machine and Nagios Log Server is not sent in plain text.

Install and Secure phpMyAdmin on Ubuntu

This article will guide you on the process to #install #PhpMyAdmin on Ubuntu. PHPMyAdmin allows users to interact with #MySQL through a web interface and makes MySQL #database #management easier.

Installation and Configuration of ClamAV

This article will guide you on the steps to install #Clam #AntiVirus which is an open-source #antivirus tool to detect many types of #malicious #software, including #viruses. 

Uninstall Software in Ubuntu 18.04 using Putty ssh tool

This article will guide you on the different methods to #uninstall #software in #Ubuntu using the terminal or an #ssh tool such as #putty.

Install and Configure ModSecurity on Ubuntu

This article will guide you on the steps to perform #ModSecurity installation on #Ubuntu which involves enabling Core Rule Set to handle malicious activities.

Restrict anonymous login and ban IP address of attacker Windows

This article will guide you on the steps to Restrict anonymous login and ban #IP address of attacker by using Local Group Policy Editor in #Windows which allows us to prevent anonymous login and #IPBan helps to ban IP of #attacker. 

NFS server not responding timed out error How to fix

This article will guide you on how to fix #NFS server not responding timed out #error which occurs when there is a heavy #server or #network load.

Why NFS is not working?

i. Check the file /proc/fs/nfs/exports and make sure the volume and client are listed correctly.

ii. Finally, try to ping the client from the server, and try to ping the server from the client. 

iii. If this doesn't work, or if there is packet loss, you may have lower-level network problems.

Docker Cannot connect to the Docker daemon

This article will guide you on the steps to fix 'Docker: Cannot connect to the #Docker daemon' error which occurs if the docker #daemon is not running on the #host or the user not having root privileges. 

Steps to Install Pure-FTPD on Ubuntu 18.04 LTS Server

#Pure-FTPd is a fast, production-quality, standard-conformant #FTP (SSL/TLS) server, based upon Troll-FTPd.

This article will guide you through the processes to install Pure-FTPd on your #Ubuntu server.

Time Command How to know execution time in Linux

This article will guide you on how to use the time command in Linux which is important in determining the duration of execution of a command.

Virtualmin common installation errors

This article will guide you on the different common errors in Virtualmin / Webmin and their fixes.

Install and configure Kohana on Linux

This article will guide you on the easy steps to install and configure Kohana on Linux.

Steps to Install GNS3 on Ubuntu in a single command

This article will guide you on the steps to install GNS3 on Ubuntu.

RM cannot remove read-only file system tips to fix

This article will guide you on how to fix 'rm cannot remove the read-only file system' error  by simply removing files from the read-only file system.

How to install PgAdmin 4 on Debian 10

This article will guide you on how to install PgAdmin in Debian.

Steps to Install Terraform On Ubuntu

This guide will show you how to install terraform on CentOS 7/Ubuntu 18.04.

Install BigBlueButton on Ubuntu

This article will guide you through the steps you need to follow to install BigBlueButton on Ubuntu.

Htop installation on Linux


This article will show you how to install Htop across different Linux Distributions and Operating System.

ioncube Installation on Ubuntu

This article will guide you through the steps to install ionCube on Ubuntu.

MongoDB installation on Ubuntu

This article will guide you on how to install MongoDB on Ubuntu.

Configure MongoDB Authentication on Ubuntu

This article will put you through the steps you need to take to enable authentication for MongoDB on Ubuntu by modifying MongoDB configuration file.

Ansible Software installation on ubuntu

This article will put you through to install Ansible on Ubuntu and Debian Machines to get it to work via its inventory file.

FreeIPA Client installation on ubuntu

This guide will help you with all the information you need to install FreeIPA client on Debian or Ubuntu Server.

Installing and configuring Samba on Ubuntu

This extract will guide you on how to install and configure Samba on Ubuntu which is a software package which allows us to access a shared network drive and printers across different operating systems.

Neo4j installation on Ubuntu

See the steps to install and configure Neo4j on Ubuntu.

How to install Git on Ubuntu 18.04

Different ways to install Git which enables tracking the changes in source code as well as to track changes made in files.

How to install webmin on ubuntu

The complete process of Installing Webmin on Ubuntu and Configuration of Let's Encrypt Certificate on the Server.

Fix error while loading shared libraries in Ubuntu

Easy method to solve error while loading shared libraries in Ubuntu.

Setup openvas on linux Debian and Ubuntu

OpenVAS software framework is a great security tool checking if the system is vulnerable by means of scanning and Management. It helps to safeguard the server from unauthorized access.


To Install OpenVAS on Ubuntu:

By default, the OpenVAS package is not available in the Ubuntu 16.04 repository, so you will need to add OpenVAS PPA to your system's repository list.

1. Add the OpenVAS PPA.

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:mrazavi/openvas

2. Update the repository.

$ sudo apt-get update

3. Finally, install OpenVAS.

$ sudo apt-get install openvas

4. Once OpenVAS has finished installing, start the OpenVAS service with the following commands:

$ sudo systemctl start openvas-scanner

$ sudo systemctl start openvas-manager

$ sudo systemctl start openvas-gsa

Change the IP Address in Ubuntu - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the basic overview of IP addresses, their types, and the contrast between the IPv4 and IPv6 protocols.

Reinstalling Ubuntu Linux system - How to go about it ?

This article covers the reinstallation process of ubuntu Linux system. In fact, if you have messed up your Ubuntu system and after trying numerous ways to fix it, you finally give up and take the easy way out: you reinstall Ubuntu.

How to use Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa via GNOME desktop and command-line interface (CLI) ?

This article covers how beginners can better understand the desktop environment and some basic commands of ubuntu. To know more about Ubuntu, you can visit the official website of ubuntu.

Install Explode Bricks on Linux Mint 20.3 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing the Explode Bricks game on a Linux Mint 20.3 system.

Install Remmina Desktop Client on Manjaro Linux - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the installation process of Remmina Desktop Client on Manjaro Linux. In fact, Remmina is a remote desktop client written in GTK+, aiming to be useful for system administrators and travellers, who need to work with lots of remote computers in front of either large monitors or tiny netbooks.

Install Zenity on Linux Mint 20.3 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the installation procedure of Zenity on Linux Mint 20.3. In fact, zenity is Display dialog boxes from shell scripts.

Install and Use yay in Manjaro Linux 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install yay on our Manjaro Linux 20 machine. In fact, Yet Another Yogurt - An AUR Helper Written in Go.

Install Flameshot on Manjaro Linux 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Flameshot on Manjaro Linux 20.

Install MythTV on Linux Mint 20.3 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to easily install MythTV application on a Linux Mint 20.3 system.

Change the Ubuntu 21.10 Impish Indri Theme - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how you can change themes in Ubuntu Linux system. In fact, Gnome Tweaks is tool that lets us tweak the default themes, icons, cursor, extensions and a lot more with ease.


How to install Gnome Tweaks ?

To install Gnome Tweaks, open your terminal (Quick Tip: Press 'ctrl+alt+t' together to open the terminal) and type the following command:

$ sudo apt-get install gnome-tweaks

Install PowerShell on Linux Mint 20.3 Una system - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to easily Install PowerShell on Linux Mint system. In fact, PowerShell is commonly used for automating the management of systems. It is also used to build, test, and deploy solutions, often in CI/CD environments.

Adding a Printer to Ubuntu 21.10 system - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to easily attach a printer to your Ubuntu (Linux OS) to ease the lives of Linux users. In fact, A printer is a hardware device that is commonly used to convert the softcopy of a particular document to a hardcopy. It is now commonly used in offices, schools, and homes. Printers have made many things easier for the average person.

Install Mozilla Thunderbird application on Manjaro Linux 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Thunderbird on our Manjaro Linux system. In fact, Thunderbird is a free and open source email, newsfeed, chat, and calendaring client, that's easy to set up and customize.

Start TeamViewer on Debian 11 bullseye system - Step by step Guide ?

This article covers how to install TeamViewer on Debian 11 bullseye system. In fact, TeamViewer is used for online meetings and file sharing between computers and controlled instrumentation such as robots or industrial machinery remotely via VPN connections (virtual private networks).

Install MongoDB on openSUSE Leap 15.3 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install MongoDB on openSUSE OS through the MongoDB repository.

Check the IP Address in Ubuntu 21.10 Impish Indri

This article covers the basic overview of IP addresses, their types, and the contrast between the IPv4 and IPv6 protocols.

Format USB in Ubuntu 21.10 Impish Indri

This article covers how to format a USB drive to wipe out its data and fix problems in Ubuntu Linux system. In fact, You can use any method either the command line or the graphical methods (GParted utility or File Manager) for formatting a USB drive.

Different methods to Install Debian (.deb) Package

This article covers how to install Debian (.deb) packages on Debian 11 Linux system. In fact, A file ending with ".deb" is called a Debian Software Package file, and it’s used to install apps on Linux. DEB files are used only in Debian-based Linux distributions like Ubuntu and its various flavors, Pop!_OS, Linux Mint, and others.

Install Cherry Tree on Debian 11 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install, configure, and make use of the Cherry Tree application for note-taking and support in programming. In fact, CherryTree is a hierarchical note taking application, featuring rich text, syntax highlighting, images handling, hyperlinks, import/export with support for multiple formats, support for multiple languages, and more.


How To Uninstall cherrytree from Ubuntu 21.04 ?

To uninstall only the cherrytree package we can use the following command:

$ sudo apt-get remove cherrytree

Find the MAC Address in Ubuntu 21.10

This article covers the basic overview of MAC-address and how to find it in Ubuntu. In fact, A MAC address is the unique identifier that is assigned by the manufacturer to a piece of network hardware (like a wireless card or an ethernet card). MAC stands for Media Access Control, and each identifier is intended to be unique to a particular device.

Install RPM packages on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install RPM on Ubuntu through different ways using the Alien package converter. In fact, It is better to prefer installing the packages from the default repositories or using the deb packages available at the official websites.


How To Uninstall rpm from Ubuntu 21.04 ?

To uninstall only the rpm package we can use the following command:

$ sudo apt-get remove rpm

Become a Root User in Ubuntu 22.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the different ways through which you can become the root user in Ubuntu (Linux). In fact By using all these commands, the root users are enabled, logged in and their passwords are being updated successfully. The users can then sign into the root account using a newly updated password.

Different ways to Install TeamSpeak Client on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa

This article covers how to easily install the TeamSpeak client on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS OS. In fact, TeamSpeak is a VoIP (voice-over-Internet Protocol) solution first released in 2001 and most popular with those who play team-based online games.

Install FortiClient VPN on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install FortiClient VPN on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. In fact, FortiClient is a security solution designed to reduce your computer's vulnerability. However, the FortiClient user interface itself only contains the vulnerability scan and a tab in which you can set up a VPN connection for remote access.

Install Google Earth Application on Debian 11 Bullseye system - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to easily install, launch, configure, and remove the Google Earth on Debian 11. In fact, Google earth is a great tool, providing a 3D representation of our earth primarily using satellite imagery. It basically renders a 3D model map, covering the entire world.


Google Earth main features include:

  • Digital globe.
  • 3D building models.
  • Street view.
  • Zoom below the water surface.

Open a Port on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to open ports on Ubuntu with some examples like opening port 22, port 80, port 443, and port 53 using the ufw command.

To Open port for a specific webserver such as Apache or Nginx execute the bellow Linux command:

$ sudo ufw allow in "Apache Full"
$ sudo ufw allow in "Nginx Full"

Install Tor on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install tor on Ubuntu 21.10. In fact, Tor is a connection-based low-latency anonymous communication system. Basically, Tor provides a distributed network of relays. Users bounce their TCP streams (web traffic, ftp, ssh, etc) around the relays, and recipients, observers, and even the relays themselves have difficulty learning which users connected to which destinations.

Restart Ubuntu 21.10 Impish Indri From the Terminal

This article covers some approaches to restart the Ubuntu system (Linux OS) like restarting Ubuntu using shutdown command, reboot command, init command, and systemd way. In fact, Every operating system needs to reboot or restart after some time due to various reasons. Some of the reasons are that certain software needs a reboot after installation to become fully functional, due to some configurational change, or maybe because of a software glitch. 

Which Linux Mint Desktop Editions Should I Use ?

This article covers the different flavours of Linux Mint to use. If you wish to experience all the features of Linux Mint 20.3, then you must go for the Cinnamon edition. If you prefer to have a lightweight operating system without compromising on the important features, then, you should download the Mate edition. If you are ready to make a compromise on some of the features of the operating system but want to have a fast and stable release, then, without a doubt you should choose the Xfce edition. However, if you are still confused about which flavor of Linux Mint 20.3 will be best for satisfying your needs, then you should start from the Cinnamon edition and try using all the editions one by one. After that, you can stick to the one that you like the best.

Install Foxit Reader on openSUSE Leap 15.3 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Foxit Reader on openSUSE. In fact, Foxit Reader Provide authors with comments on documents, be notified when new document versions become available, discuss interesting topics right in the document, or securely open protected documents.

Check Kernel Version in Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the different methods of finding the Linux Mint kernel version through various command line utilities. If you are interested in updating your kernel in Linux Mint 20, follow this guide: https://LinuxReels.com/resource/1332-update-linux-mint-20-3

Use Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to perform basic and important activities on your Linux Mint 20.3 system.


Main Features in Linux Mint 20.3:
  • The Updated Cinnamon 5.2 Desktop: The first thing about Una, which grabs your attention, is the freshly deployed Cinnamon 5.2 desktop.
  • User Interface Enhancements: The new dark mode beautifully pairs the dark headers of each interface with lighter, contrasting windows. You will notice how the window layout and control buttons have more dimensions to provide straightforward navigation.
  • Application-Specific Improvements: Una has a brand new XApp in store for you, called Thingy. It's a PDF reader that comes bundled with Linux Mint as the default document management application. It offers excellent library management facilities and helps track your e-reading progress.
  • Miscellaneous Improvements: Some other worthy features, which are miscellaneous add-ons to the existing repertoire of features, include some pretty nifty improvements for the end-users.

Check GCC Version in Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to easily check the version of GCC (build-essential) running on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. In fact, GCC, better known as The GNU Compiler Collection, is a set of compilers, development tools, and front ends such as C, C++, Objective-C, Fortran, Ada, Go, and D. 


How To Uninstall gcc from Ubuntu 21.04 ?

To uninstall only the gcc package we can use the following command:

$ sudo apt-get remove gcc

We can use the following command to remove gcc configurations, data and all of its dependencies, we can use the following command:

$ sudo apt-get -y autoremove --purge gcc

Install Zoom on openSUSE Leap 15.3 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the installation of Zoom on openSUSE using different methods. In fact, Zoom is great for video conferencing and online meetings.

Download Linux Mint 20.3 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how you can easily download Linux Mint 20.3 on your system. In fact, Linux mint is a favorite Linux distribution used by number of users in the Open Source space, schools and some private institutions.


Install Git on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to easily install Git on the Ubuntu 20.04 system. In fact, GIT is for developers that need a pretty straightforward version control system. Most software is collaborative efforts and sometimes can have hundreds of people with commits working on software development projects. It’s essential to track these commits customarily done in branches in most projects before merging into the master for release. It is easy to review and track down any incorrect commits and revert, leading to a much easier development if anything goes wrong.


How to Check Git Version ?

You can check to see what version of git you are currently running, if any, with the following command:

$ git --version

Enable SSH on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to enable ssh on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Linux system. In fact, the idea behind using SSH is to establish a secure connection with another computer in the network. However, the remote computer must have a running SSH server, otherwise, we won't be able to connect it using command or SSH client from our local computer.


How to Generate Public and Private Keys for SSH ?

  • Open command line- Terminal or Prompt on your local system.
  • Enter SSH key generator command that will generate the  key ssh-keygen.
  • Hit the Enter key.
  • (optional) Then you can enter a password in order to add an additional barrier when establishing the connection. Otherwise, simply press the Enter key two times, if you don't want the system to ask for an additional password query.
  • Ultimately, two files are created in the hidden directory ".ssh" under your user directory: "id_rsa" and "id_rsa.pub". The "rsa" in the file name stands for the cryptography used, but you don't have to worry about it. The file extension "pub" stands for "Public", so it is the public key. Whereas the file without any extension is your private key.

Install LAMP in Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install LAMP on Ubuntu 20.04 and run the Apache module of the PHP. In fact, PHP code can be executed via the Apache web server; PHP module of Apache and PHP-FPM.

Different ways of Updating Ubuntu 20.04 / 18.04

This article covers the concept of keeping your Ubuntu system updated. You can either Update Ubuntu via the command line or via the Software Updater GUI tool.

Install Microsoft Powershell on Manjaro Linux - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Microsoft Powershell on Manjaro Linux. Infact, Powershell consists of a cross-platform command-line shell and associated scripting language.

Install Java on Linux Mint 20.3 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install the latest version of Java on your Linux Mint 20.3 system and also the method to upgrade Java if you already have an older version of it installed on your system.

Install Sublime Text 3 on Debian 11 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to remove the sublime text editor from the Debian 11 system. In fact, Sublime Text is a cross-platform text editor written in C++ and python and developed for individuals who are looking for an effective yet minimalist tool for shuffling code around. Not only does it supports many languages, but you can also even extend the functionality using plugins.

Recover Deleted Data on a Linux System

This article covers the recovery methods of deleted data in Ubuntu (Linux OS). Data loss is a major problem that causes a lot of stress but there are many recovery tools that help to recover lost data. 

Install Python on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how you can install Python 3.9 on your Linux Mint system. In fact, Python programming language can help in solving your programmatic problems.


Main features of Python includes:

  • It can be used on a server to create web applications.
  • It can be used alongside software to create workflows.
  • It can connect to database systems. It can also read and modify files.
  • It can be used to handle big data and perform complex mathematics.
  • It can be used for rapid prototyping or production-ready software development.

Install Chrome on Debian 11 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Google Chrome on Debian 11 Bullseye. In fact, Google Chrome is a cross-platform web browser developed by Google. It was first released in 2008 for Microsoft Windows, built with free software components from Apple WebKit and Mozilla Firefox. It was later ported to Linux, macOS, iOS, and Android, where it is the default browser.


How to Update Google Chrome ?

To update Google Chrome, run the APT update command in your terminal:

$ sudo apt update

If one is available, use the upgrade option:

$ sudo apt upgrade google-chrome-stable

Install Microsoft Teams on openSUSE - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the installation of Microsoft Teams on the openSUSE system. In fact, Using either the repository or the snap package manager, you can easily install Microsoft Teams on your openSUSE.


Why use Microsoft Teams?

  • Meetings in groups make this process a lot easier. You may start conversing with the attendees about the agenda as soon as you create the meeting, exchange the files you need them to review, and keep track of the meeting notes and to-dos as soon as you create the meeting.
  • You no longer have all the email-on-email responses, which are often delivered as a Reply All, because discussions are now held in a structured way in your Teams.
  • The call recording is immediately available in the same tab, so you don’t have to look for it if you missed the meeting. It’s right there, along with the meeting minutes and agreed-upon tasks.
  • In Teams, you may use the chat box to have brief conversations with your coworkers.
  • You can access all of your apps and documents right away with the Teams phone app.
  • In Teams, you can create a Word, Excel, or PowerPoint document, share it with your teammates right away, and then co-author it in the single glance.

Upgrade from Ubuntu 20.04 to Ubuntu 22.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to successfully upgrade from Ubuntu 20.04 Focal Fossa to Ubuntu 22.04 Jammy Jellyfish. In fact, Ubuntu 22.04 LTS Jammy Jellyfish is due to release on April 21, 2022. However, users of Ubuntu 20.04 and Ubuntu 21.10 are able to upgrade to the latest release right now.

Deploy Modsecurity with Nginx on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS

This article covers how we can install Modsecurity on an ubuntu server that already has pre-installed Nginx on it. In fact, the ModSecurity engine is deployed in front of the web application, allowing the engine to scan the incoming and outgoing HTTP connections. ModSecurity is most commonly used in conjunction with the OWASP Core Rule Set (CRS), an open-source set of rules written in ModSecurity's SecRules language and is highly regarded among the security industry.


OWASP Rule Set with ModSecurity can almost instantly help protect your server against:

  • Bad user agents
  • DDOS
  • Cross website scripting
  • SQL injection
  • Session hijacking
  • Other Threats

Install AnyDesk on openSUSE 15.3 system - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install AnyDesk remote desktop application on openSUSE system. In fact,  you can easily set up the AnyDesk remote desktop application on your system.

Install Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the installation procedure of Ubuntu 20.04 on your system. In fact, Ubuntu 20.04 (codenamed Focal Fossa) was released on April 23, 2020. It’s a Long-Term Support (LTS) release, meaning that it will receive support and updates until April 2025.


New Features of Ubuntu 20.04 includes:

  • Linux Kernel 5.4 – This version of the Linux kernel adds support for a wider range of processors. It also includes improvements for boot speed, power-saving, and USB-C, plus several security features.
  • Gnome 3.36 – Gnome has been updated and improved. System animations should be smoother and have a lower impact on CPU usage.
  • ZFS 0.8.3 file system –  Improved performance and native encryption.
  • Dark theme
  • Redesigned login screen.
  • Newer versions of popular programming languages – Python 3.8, OpenJDK 11, PHP 7.4, Glibc 2.31, Rustc 1.41, GCC 9.3, Ruby 2.7.0, Perl 5.30, Golang 1.13.


How to Create a Bootable USB Drive on Ubuntu ?

By using the Create startup disk tool:

  • Open a search dialog, and type create startup.
  • If it's not installed, the Software Center will offer the option to install it – choose the option for USB drive, then open the utility.
  • In the top pane, click Other, then browse and select the Ubuntu 20.04 .iso file you downloaded.
  • In the bottom pane, select your USB drive.
  • Click Make startup disk.

Install BasKet on Debian 11 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install basket on Debian 11. In fact, BasKet provides as many baskets (drawers) as you wish; Several kinds of objects (texts, URLs, images,…) can be drag-n-drop'd into it.

Use Rsync on your Ubuntu 20.04 Linux system - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the basics of rsync command, how to transfer and sync files locally as well as remotely. In fact, Rsync is the most efficient, accessible, and secure ways to sync files between operating systems and servers.


How to Install Rsync On Linux System ?

1. Install Rsync Alma Linux, Fedora, Rhel, Rocky Linux based distributions:

$ sudo yum install rsync -y

2. Install Rsync Debian, Linux Mint, Ubuntu based distributions:

$ sudo apt install rsync -y


Rysnc Commands includes:

  • -a, –archive: archive files and directory while synchronizing ( -a equal to following options -rlptgoD)
  • -b, –backup : take the backup during synchronization
  • -l, –links: copy symlinks as symlinks during the sync
  • -d, –delete: deletes extraneous files from the destination location.
  • -e, –rsh=COMMAND: mention the remote shell to use in rsync
  • -h, –human-readable: display the output numbers in a human-readable format
  • -u, –update: don't copy the files from source to destination if destination files are newer
  • -r, –recursive: sync files and directories recursively
  • -n, –dry-run : perform a trial run without synchronization
  • –p, –progress: show the sync progress during transfer
  • -z, –compress: compress file data during the transfer
  • -q, –quiet: suppress message output
  • -v, –verbose : verbose output

Install Wireshark on Debian 10 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Wireshark on Debian 10. In fact, Wireshark is a network "sniffer" - a tool that captures and analyzes packets off the wire. With Wireshark, you can capture incoming and outgoing packets of a network in real-time and use it for network troubleshooting, packet analysis, software and communication protocol development, and many more.


How To Uninstall wireshark on Ubuntu 21.04

To uninstall only the wireshark package we can use the following command:

$ sudo apt-get remove wireshark

We can use the following command to remove wireshark configurations, data and all of its dependencies, we can use the following command:

$ sudo apt-get -y autoremove --purge wireshark

Install Ubuntu 22.04 on Virtual Box - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the Step by step installation of the Ubuntu 22.04 server in a virtual box. In fact, Installing Ubuntu on VirtualBox as a Virtual Machine (VM) enjoys many benefits – you can preview and rule out changes to a better VM mode if something goes awry, lend a VM, create a VM to more effective (all VM information is removed as a bunch of documents), or run a VM on most hosting systems supported by VirtualBox. 

Install Scala Compiler on Linux Mint 20.02 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install the Scala compiler on your Linux Mint 20.02 machine. In fact, After installing this compiler, you will be all set to write codes using the Scala programming language. It includes modern language features such as closures, pattern-matching, parametric types, and virtual type members.

Install PostgreSQL 14 on Debian 11 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install PostgreSQL 14 on the Debian 11 system. In fact, you can easily create the postgreSQL databases on your system. You can follow the steps here to install the PostgreSQL on Ubuntu: https://LinuxReels.com/resource/1188-install-postgresql-on-ubuntu-20-04 .

With PostgreSQL 14 installed on your Ubuntu 20.04 system, you can now comfortably use it to steer your database-powered apps or projects to new heights.

Install Anaconda on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install and use Anaconda on your Ubuntu system. Anaconda is a free and open-source Python and R programming language distribution. The Python interpreter is included, as are several data science and machine learning packages.

Install Pycharm on Debian 11 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the different ways to install Pycharm on Debian 11 BullsEye. In fact, PyCharm is a dedicated Python graphical IDE (Integrated Development Environment) popular amongst Python developers with its wide range of essential tools such as analyzing code, debugging, and integration. 

Install TeamViewer on openSUSE Leap 15.3 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install TeamViewer on the openSUSE machine through the .rpm package and also how to run TeamViewer on openSUSE without installation. In fact, TeamViewer is a cross-platform application that enables an user to control remote computers over the internet or network.

Install Nginx on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Using Source Code - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how you can easily install Nginx on your Ubuntu server. In fact, Nginx is used for security and load-balancing, but can also function independently as a web server. 

It was created on 4 October 2004 by Russian developer Igor Sysoev as he was frustrated with Apache web server and wanted to build a replacement capable of handling 10,000 concurrent connections with a focus on performance, high concurrency, and low memory usages.


How to Enable NGINX on Boot ?

So to enable start-up on boot, run this command:

$ systemctl enable nginx

So we get confirmation of a start-up, symlink being created for this service.

Run .sh File Commands All in Once in Linux

This article covers how to run sh files using the terminal as well as using the command line or terminal. In fact, the .sh file is nothing but the shell script to install given application or to perform other tasks under Linux like operating systems.


How do I run .sh file shell script in Linux?

The procedure to run the .sh file shell script on Linux is as follows:

  • Open the Terminal application on Linux or Unix.
  • Create a new script file with .sh extension using a text editor.
  • Write the script file using nano script-name-here.sh.
  • Set execute permission on your script using chmod command : chmod +x script-name-here.sh .
  • To run your script : ./script-name-here.sh
  • Another option is as follows to execute shell script: $ sh script-name-here.sh OR bash script-name-here.sh .

Install Node.js 17 & NPM on Debian 11 Bullseye - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Node.js 17 & NPM on Debian 11 Bullseye. Node.js is an open-source, cross-platform, back-end JavaScript runtime environment built on Chrome’s V8 engine to build fast and scalable network applications and back-end APIs. While NPM is a package manager for the JavaScript programming language maintained by NPM, Inc. NPM is the default package manager for the JavaScript runtime environment Node.js and is arguably the most available repository for Node.JS packages.

Install Smartctl on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the complete steps to install smartctl on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, the smartmontools package contains two utility programs (smartctl and smartd) to control and monitor storage systems using the Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology System (S.M.A.R.T.) built into most modern ATA and SCSI hard disks. It is derived from the smartsuite package, and includes support for ATA/ATAPI-5 disks. It should run on any modern Linux system.


How to Install smartmontools Using apt-get on Ubuntu / Debian system ?

1. Update apt database with apt-get using the following command:

$ sudo apt-get update

2. After updating apt database, We can install smartmontools using apt-get by running the following command:

$ sudo apt-get -y install smartmontools

Different methods of Checking MySQL Version in Linux

This article covers the ways to check the MySQL version in Linux. In fact, MySQL (and its drop-in replacement MariaDB) is the most popular open-source relational database management system. There are some important differences between MySQL versions, so knowing which version is running on your server might be important in some situations.


How to Check MySQL Version with V Command ?

The easiest way to find the MySQL version is with the command:

$ mysql -V

The command mysql –V is not OS specific. This command works on Windows, OS X, and Linux distributions including Ubuntu.

Deploy Redis on Rocky Linux 8 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install and configure Redis on Rocky Linux 8. In fact, Redis is a popular and open-source in-memory key-value data store. It supports various data structures such as Hash, Lists, Sets, Strings, and much more. 

Methods to Remove PPAs Package Added in Ubuntu Linux system

This article covers the different methods to remove packages in Ubuntu Linux. 


How to use PPA ?

Ubuntu provides a platform called Launchpad that enables software developers to create their own repositories. An end user i.e. you can add the PPA repository to your sources.list and when you update your system, your system would know about the availability of this new software and you can install it using the standard sudo apt install command like this.

To summarize:

  • $ sudo add-apt-repository <PPA_info> <– This command adds the PPA repository to the list.
  • $ sudo apt-get update <– This command updates the list of the packages that can be installed on the system.
  • $ sudo apt-get install <package_in_PPA> <– This command installs the package.


A repository is a collection of files that has information about various software, their versions and some other details like the checksum.

Each Ubuntu version has its own official set of four repositories:

  • Main – Canonical-supported free and open-source software.
  • Universe – Community-maintained free and open-source software.
  • Restricted – Proprietary drivers for devices.
  • Multiverse – Software restricted by copyright or legal issues.

Different methods to Open a File in Linux

This article covers the different methods to open a file in Linux via a terminal. In fact, In Linux, we can display various file formats such as text file, audio files, video, image, doc, pdf, or any other file contents.


How to Open File Using gnome-open Command ?

For the GNOME-based Linux environment, we can use the gnome-open command to open a file.

If the gnome utility is not installed on our machine, we can install it by using the following command:

$ sudo apt install libgnome2-bin  

Execute the above command and provide the system administrator password to install the GNOME utility.

Now, to display the file content, execute the command as follows:

$ gnome-open Test.txt  

The above command will open the file with the default file system.

There are some other popular Linux environments, such as KDE DESKTOP, OS X UNIX, and more.

For KDE Desktop, execute the command as follows:

$ kde-open <file name>  

or,

$ xdg-open <file name>  

For OS X UNIX, execute the command as follows:

$ open <file name> 

Different Ways to Install Software on Ubuntu Linux

This article covers the different ways of installing any software on Ubuntu Linux. In fact, When it comes to installing software on Linux, you are not restricted to one single method.

Most Effective GUI Tools to Free Up Space on Ubuntu and Linux Mint

This article covers the best GUI Tools to Free Up Space on Ubuntu and Linux Mint . In fact, you can use these tools to regularly keep your Ubuntu / Linux Mint system free of junk files.


How to Remove old kernels from the Ubuntu / Linux Mint system  ?

1. As we should know, the Linux Kernel is the heart of the system, but it is also known that it is updated every so often, so they are released new versions which are installed in the system displacing the old versions which remain stored without being eliminated.

For this we must type the following command:

$ sudo dpkg 'linux-image *' --list

2. Next, they must identify their oldest kernels and execute the following command to remove the previous versions.

Just replace xxxxx with the version of Linux you want to delete:

$ sudo apt-get remove linux-image-xxxxx

3. As an alternative, an easier way to clean up these old kernels is to use 'autoremove':

$ sudo apt-get autoremove  --purge

Backup Your Data on Ubuntu 20.04 using Fwbackups - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install fwbackups and backup data in the application on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, fwbackups is an open-source feature-rich user backup application that allows you to backup your important documents anytime, anywhere using a simple powerful interface with the support for scheduled backups and backing up to remote systems.


How to Install fwbackups on Debian and Ubuntu / Mint Linux ?

1. Install these following dependencies on your system:

$ sudo apt-get install gettext autotools-dev intltool python-crypto python-paramiko python-gtk2 python-glade2 python-notify cron

2. Then download fwbackups to your home directory using wget command and install it from source using the following commands:

$ wget http://downloads.diffingo.com/fwbackups/fwbackups-1.43.7.tar.bz2
$ tar xfj fwbackups-1.43.7.tar.bz2
$ cd fwbackups-1.43.7/
$ ./configure --prefix=/usr
$ make && sudo make install

3. Install fwbackups on CentOS and RHEL:

$ sudo yum install gettext autotools-dev intltool python-crypto python-paramiko python-gtk2 python-glade2 python-notify cron

4. Next, download fwbackups and install it from source using the following commands:

$ wget http://downloads.diffingo.com/fwbackups/fwbackups-1.43.7.tar.bz2
$ tar xfj fwbackups-1.43.7.tar.bz2
$ cd fwbackups-1.43.7/
$ ./configure --prefix=/usr
$ make && sudo make install

5. Install fwbackups on Fedora Linux:

$ sudo dnf install fwbackups


From the fwbackups Overview page, you can simply click on any one of the toolbar buttons to begin:

  • ⁠Backup Sets – To create, edit or delete backup sets as well as manually create a backup set.
  • ⁠One-Time Backup – Create "one-time" backups.
  • ⁠Log Viewer – Shows the information about fwbackups's activities.
  • Restore – Allows you to restore any backup from previously made backup.

How to install Bacula Server on Ubuntu Linux system ?

In order to install Bacula Server, log in to your Ubuntu instance and issue the command:

$ sudo apt-get install bacula -y

You will be prompted for the following:

  • Mail server configuration (unless you need email alerts, you can configure this as local only).
  • System mail name (this is the email domain for the server, if applicable).
  • Configure database for bacula-directory-pgsql (you want to do this and set it as localhost).
  • Configure a password for the Bacula PostgreSQL database.


Once you've completed the above, you'll get your prompt back and can continue on with the configuration.

Install Snort on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Snort on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, Snort monitors the package data sent and received through a specific network interface. NIDS can catch threats targeting your system vulnerabilities using signature-based detection and protocol analysis technologies. NIDS software, when installed and configured appropriately, can identify the latest attacks, malware infections, compromised systems, and network policy violations.

Delete and Dispose of Files Properly in Ubuntu With Shred

This article covers how to delete files and folders in Ubuntu Linux system. In fact, Your files can be recovered and leaked with the help of data recovery software.

Install SQLite on Debian 11 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install the latest version of SQLite on Debian 11 Bullseye. In fact, SQLite is a C-language library that implements a small, fast, self-contained, high-reliability, full-featured, SQL database engine. 

Install and Use MySQL Workbench on Fedora 35 / 34 / 33 / 32 - Step by step guide

This article covers how to easily manage your SQL databases using MySQL workbench on Fedora. In fact, the MySQL Workbench on Fedora or REHL allows the database managers, developers or DB architects to visually design the Database. It features Database Connection & Instance Management, SQL Editor, Visual EXPLAIN, SQL snippets collections, SSH connection tunneling, Unicode support, Data modeling, ER diagramming, Drag n Drop visual modeling, Database administration, Database account management, Performance monitoring, Performance Schema metrics, MySQL instance dashboard, Database migration, and more.

Upgrade .Net SDK on Debian 11 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install both .Net SDK and Runtime on your Debian 11 Linux system. In fact, .NET Core is the modular and high performance implementation of .NET for creating web applications and services that run on Windows, Linux and Mac.

Install Jami on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers getting the Jami application installed on your Linux Mint 20 machine. In fact, Jami is free software for universal communication that respects the freedom and privacy of its users.


How To Uninstall jami on Ubuntu 21.04 ?

To uninstall only the jami package we can use the following command:

$ sudo apt-get remove jami

Install John the Ripper on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how you can conveniently install and learn to use John the Ripper on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, this tool will not only help you in checking the strength of your passwords but will also help you in recovering them if needed.

Install FreeMind on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how you will be able to get the FreeMind mind mapper application installed on your Linux Mint 20 system. 

Install Joomla on Rocky Linux 8 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Joomla on Rocky Linux 8. In fact, Joomla is an open-source and PHP-based content management system used for creating different types of websites including blogs, eCommerce storefronts, and marketing sites. It is simple, user-friendly, and provides an easy way to build dynamic and powerful websites.

Install Gradle on Debian 10 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Gradle on a Debian 10 machine. In fact, Gradle is an open-source tool for build automation Java, Groovy, and Scala development. It relies on the concepts of Ant and Maven to automate the building process.


How to Install gradle on Debian Using apt ?

Update apt database with apt using the following command:

$ sudo apt update

After updating apt database, We can install gradle using apt by running the following command:

$ sudo apt -y install gradle


How To Uninstall gradle on Ubuntu 21.10 ?

To uninstall only the gradle package we can use the following command:

$ sudo apt-get remove gradle

We can use the following command to remove gradle configurations, data and all of its dependencies, we can use the following command:

$ sudo apt-get -y autoremove --purge gradle

Install gLabels Publisher on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install gLabels which is a unique desktop publishing for label designing. In fact, gLabels is designed to work with various laser/ink-jet peel-off label and business card sheets that you'll find at most office supply stores. gLabels also supports mail merge from sources such as CSV files, vCards and Evolution data servers.


How to Install glabels on Ubuntu Using apt ?

Update apt database with apt using the following command:

$ sudo apt update

After updating apt database, We can install glabels using apt by running the following command:

$ sudo apt -y install glabels

Create a Live USB for Manjaro Linux on Windows 10 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how you can create a bootable USB for Manjaro Linux on Windows 10. In fact, All you need is a USB drive, a Linux ISO file, and an ISO burning tool to create a live bootable USB.

Mirror your Phone Screen on Ubuntu 20.04 - How to do it ?

This article covers how you can start working on your computer and your phone simultaneously. In fact, It opens up endless frontiers for you to maximize your productivity.


Main Features of Scrcpy includes:

  • Does not require root.
  • Available for Windows, macOS & Linux.
  • No app required required on phone.
  • High resolution mirror.
  • Type using your computer keyboard.
  • Clipboard sync.
  • Interact using your mouse.

Install Nmap on Fedora 34 / 35 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install and basic use Nmap on Fedora 35 Workstation or Server. In fact, Nmap is an essential enumeration tool used in penetration testing and Ethical hacking to scan for vulnerabilities associated with outdated services which are easily exploitable.



What the port terminal states when using the Nmap port scanner:

  • closed – the target port is reachable, but no application is listening or accepting.
  • open – the target port is accepting either TCP, UDP or SCTP.
  • filtered – the target port cannot be successfully determined by nmap to be open or closed due to packet filtering.
  • unfiltered – the port is reachable, but cannot be dtermined if open or closed by nmap.
  • closed|filtered – nmap reach target and nmap cannot determine if the port is open or closed.
  • open|filtered – nmap cannot determine if a port is open or filtered.

Install Python 3.11 on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Python 3.11 on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa using the PPA by Snakeyes or compiling from source and learning how to create a quick virtual environment.

Install Discord on Rocky Linux 8 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Discord on Rocky Linux 8. Infact, Discord is available on Windows, macOS, and Linux Distros. It allows Users to communicate with voice calls, video calls, text messaging, media, and files in private chats or as part of communities called "servers". 

Install Open Source osTicket on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step guide ?

This article covers how to install the osTicket open source ticket system on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, OsTicket allows you to manage, organize and archive your support request. It seamlessly routes inquiries created via email, web-forms, and phone calls into a simple, easy-to-use, multi-user, web-based customer support platform.


How to install osTicket with Nginx on Ubuntu ?

1. Update the system

First, log in to your server with sudo privileges and update the system with the latest stable version using the following command:

$ sudo apt update &&  sudo apt upgrade -y


2. Install LEMP Server

OsTicket requires Web server, PHP and Database Server to be installed on your server.

i. Install Nginx Web Server

You can install Nginx web server by the following command:

$ sudo apt install nginx -y

Now let's check Nginx service and To start the service manually, run the following commands:

$ sudo systemctl status nginx
$ sudo systemctl start nginx

Now enable nginx service to start at boot time by running the following command:

$ sudo systemctl enable nginx

ii. Install PHP and PHP-FPM

Next, you need to install PHP, PHP-FPM and some additional PHP modules which are required for OsTicket to run properly:

$ sudo apt install php php-mysql php-cgi php-fpm php-cli php-curl php-gd php-imap php-mbstring php-xml-util php-intl php-apcu php-common php-gettext php-bcmath

Above command will install php-7.2

Now edit php.ini file by running following command in terminal.

$ sudo vim /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini

Uncomment cgi.fix_pathinfo variable and change its value to 0

cgi.fix_pathinfo=0

Now save and close the file.

Next, restart php7.2-fpm service and enable it at startup using the following command:

$ sudo systemctl restart php7.2-fpm
$ sudo systemctl enable php7.2-fpm

iii. Install and Configure MySQL Database server for OsTicket

From your terminal window, issue the following command to install the MySQL database server:

$ sudo apt install mysql-server

Now start MySQL service and enable it to start at boot time then check MySQL service status with the following command:-

$ sudo systemctl start mysql
$ sudo systemctl enable mysql
$ sudo systemctl status mysql

Next, secure MySQL installation with the following command:

$ sudo mysql_secure_installation

Answer all the questions as below:

Set root password? [Y/n] Y
New password:
Re-enter new password:
Remove anonymous users? [Y/n] Y
Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n] Y
Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n] Y
Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n] Y

Next, log in to MySQL console as shown below:

$ sudo mysql -u root -p

Enter your Root password here.

Now you need to create the database for osTicket

run following command:

$ mysql> create database osticket_db;
$ mysql> grant all privileges on osticket_db.* to osticket_user identified by 'OsTicketPassw0rd@19';
$ mysql> flush privileges;


3. Download and Configure osTicket

Create a new directory for osTicket and then go to that directory:

$ sudo mkdir -p /var/www/osticket/
$ cd /var/www/osticket/

Next download latest osTicket setup using wget and Extract it using the following command:-

$ sudo apt-get install wget unzip
$ sudo wget https://github.com/osTicket/osTicket/releases/download/v1.14.1/osTicket-v1.14.1.zip
$ sudo unzip osTicket-v1.14.1.zip

You will get scripts and upload directory after extracting.

Next create an osTicket configuration file from ost-sampleconfig.php file using the following command:

$ sudo su -
$ cd upload/
$ cp ost-sampleconfig.php ost-config.php

Next, you need to change ownership of the osTicket web directory to the 'www-data' user and group.

$ sudo chown -R www-data:www-data /var/www/osticket/


4. Create OsTicket Virtual Host

Now create new virtual host configuration for OsTicket by running following command:

$ sudo vim /etc/nginx/sites-available/osticket.conf

Paste the configuration as below:

server {
listen 80;
server_name 13.52.217.10;   ## change server_name as per your domain name.
root /var/www/osticket/upload;
access_log /var/log/nginx/access.log;
error_log /var/log/nginx/error.log;
index index.php index.html index.htm;

# Enable gzip
gzip on;
gzip_min_length 1000;
gzip_types text/plain application/x-javascript text/xml text/css application/xml;
set $path_info "";
location ~ /include {
deny all;
return 403;
}
if ($request_uri ~ "^/api(/[^\?]+)") {
set $path_info $1;
}
location ~ ^/api/(?:tickets|tasks).*$ {
try_files $uri $uri/ /api/http.php?$query_string;
}
if ($request_uri ~ "^/scp/.*\.php(/[^\?]+)") {
set $path_info $1;
}
location ~ ^/scp/ajax.php/.*$ {
try_files $uri $uri/ /scp/ajax.php?$query_string;
}
location / {
try_files $uri $uri/ index.php;
}
location ~ \.php$ {
fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
include fastcgi_params;
include snippets/fastcgi-php.conf;
fastcgi_pass unix:/run/php/php7.2-fpm.sock;
}
}

Here, You need to change server_name 13.52.217.10 as per your domain name.

Save the Nginx configuration file and exit.

Now activate the virtual host and test the configuration:

$ ln -s /etc/nginx/sites-available/osticket.conf /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/
$ nginx -t

Now restart nginx service:

$ sudo systemctl restart nginx


5. Install and configure osTicket

Now let's enter your domain name to get osTicket UI in any web browser.

Next Click on 'Continue' and you will be redirected to the osTicket configuration section.

Fill all required information and click “Install Now” button.

In the database settings, enter details as dbname, username, and password you have created during mysql setup.

Finally, Click on Install Now button

Next, change the permission of ost-config.php to remove write access by running the following command:

$ cd /var/www/osticket/upload/
$ chmod 0644 include/ost-config.php

For osTicket admin type your IP/domain name in the web browser.

For admin login/agent panel/Admin panel configuration type as following:

  • osTicket admin login - http://yourdomainname/scp/
  • osTicket agent panel - http://yourdomainname/scp/index.php
  • osTicket Admin panel configuration - http://yourdomainname/scp/settings.php

Install Okular on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Okular on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, Okular is a universal document viewer with support for advanced document features, such as annotations, forms, and embedded files.

Install Rundeck on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Rundeck on Ubuntu 20.04 for task automations in the system. In fact, Rundeck is a free open-source software for automation services. With Rundeck, you can create simple to complex tasks on either the local machine or on a remote server.

Install the Lighttpd Server on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install the Lighttpd server on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, Lighttpd is an open-source web server that focused on simplicity and high performance with small and low memory consumption but still remaining standard-compliance, security, and flexibility. 


How to Install Lighttpd on your Linux system ?

1. Update all available repositories, and install Lighttpd using the apt command below:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install lighttpd

2. Once all installation is completed, start the Lighttpd service and add it to the system boot:

$ systemctl start lighttpd
$ systemctl enable lighttpd

3. The Lighttpd service is up and running, check it using the following command:

$ systemctl status lighttpd

4. Next, add the HTTP, HTTPS, and SSH services to the ufw firewall:

$ sudo ufw allow ssh
$ sudo ufw allow http
$ sudo ufw allow https

5. Enable the ufw firewall service using the command:

$ sudo ufw enable

Type 'y' to enable the ufw firewall.

Methods to List All Available Commands and Aliases in Linux

This article covers how to list all the available commands and aliases that we can run on Linux. In fact, The compgen is bash built-in command and it will show all available commands, aliases, and functions for you. This command works under Linux, macOS, *BSD and Unix-like system when Bash shell is installed. 

Monitor User Activity With acct Tool on Ubuntu 20.04

This article covers how to monitor user activity with the acct tool on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, Acct can monitor the user activity & getting the information about the user performance. It provides the information about last commands executed by users, user logins / logouts details in hours by day-wise, system activity information,& individuals user information.


How to install acct on ubuntu ?

1. Update the System:

$ apt-get update

2. Install the psacct or acct on system:

$ apt-get install acct

3. Check the acct version:

$ ac --version

Install GNU Octave on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the complete installation procedure of GNU Octave on the Ubuntu machine via different methods. In fact, Octave is a scientific application that uses a Matlab-like interpreted high-level language for numerical computations and simulations. Octave offers functions to solve linear and nonlinear problems, can plot the results as graphics and offers capabilities for data manipulation and visualization. Also it provides an interactive command line interface and a GUI interface but can also be used in noninteractive scripts for data processing.

Install Asterisk on Debian 11 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install the latest version of the Asterisk VoIP server on Debian 11 Bullseye. In fact, Asterisk is an Open Source PBX and telephony toolkit which can be used with Voice over IP (SIP, H.323, IAX and more) standards, or the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) through supported hardware.


How to Install asterisk Using apt-get on Debian ?

1. Update apt database with apt-get using the following command:

$ sudo apt-get update

2. After updating apt database, We can install asterisk using apt-get by running the following command:

$ sudo apt-get -y install asterisk

Install VLC Media Player on Fedora 35 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install the VLC Media Player on your Fedora 35 system. In fact, The VLC media player is an open-source, free portable, cross-platform media player software and streaming media server developed by the VideoLAN project.


How to Install VLC on Fedora via Snaps ?

1. Enable snapd

Snap can be installed on Fedora from the command line:

$ sudo dnf install snapd

2. Enable snap support

To enable classic snap support, enter the following to create a symbolic link between /var/lib/snapd/snap and /snap:

$ sudo ln -s /var/lib/snapd/snap /snap

3. Install VLC

To install VLC, simply use the following command:

$ sudo snap install vlc

Install Snipe-IT on AlmaLinux 8 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Snipe-IT on AlmaLinux 8. In fact, Snipe-IT is a open-source IT asset management and it eliminates the need for complex IT asset tracking spreadsheets.

Install LAMP Stack on AlmaLinux 8 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install LAMP (Apache, MariaDB, and PHP) Stack on your AlmaLinux 8 system. In fact, LAMP compromises a web server ( Apache ), a database server ( MariaDB or MySQL ), and the PHP scripting language which supports dynamic web pages written in PHP. 

Install Discourse on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Discourse on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, Discourse is an open-source platform used for discussions forum, chat rooms, or as a mailing list management software.

Install Discord on Fedora 35 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Discord client on Fedora 35 Linux system. In fact, with Discord, Users communicate with voice calls, video calls, text messaging, media, and files in private chats or as part of communities called "servers". It is available on Windows, macOS, and Linux Distros.


How to Install Discord with Flatpack ?

1. First, you need to enable Flatpack for Fedora using the following command in your terminal:

$ flatpak remote-add --if-not-exists flathub https://flathub.org/repo/flathub.flatpakrepo

2. Next, install Discord using Flatpack as follows:

$ flatpak install flathub com.discordapp.Discord

Type "Y" twice (x2), then press the "ENTER KEY" to proceed with the installation. 

Install Homebrew on Debian 11 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install the latest version of Homebrew on Debian 11 Bullseye. In fact, Homebrew is one of the popular package managers for Mac OS X but can be installed on Linux as well to download and install various packages.

To ensure everything is working correctly to use brew, we can run its command:

$ brew doctor

It may give the warning to install GCC and to remove that simply install it using brew:

$ brew install gcc

Install Brave Browser on Fedora 35 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install the Brave web browser on your Fedora 35 system. In fact, Brave is a privacy-focused Internet web browser, which distinguishes itself from other browsers by automatically blocking online advertisements and website trackers in its default settings.

Make a Bootable USB for Linux Mint from Windows 10 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to easily create a bootable usb for Linux Mint. In fact, we can create a bootable USB for any other Operating System. All we need is an ISO image of that OS, a Universal USB Installer, and a USB drive and we are good to go.

To see how to create a bootable USB using Ventoy, visit: https://LinuxReels.com/resource/499-create-a-bootable-usb-drive-using-ventoy


Install Octave on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install the Octave programming language on a Linux Mint 20 machine. In fact, Octave is a (mostly MATLAB® compatible) high-level language, primarily intended for numerical computations. It provides a convenient command-line interface for solving linear and nonlinear problems numerically.


How to Install octave on Linux Mint via Snapd ?

1. Enable snapd

On Linux Mint 20, /etc/apt/preferences.d/nosnap.pref needs to be removed before Snap can be installed. This can be accomplished from the command line:

$ sudo rm /etc/apt/preferences.d/nosnap.pref
$ sudo apt update

To install snap from the Software Manager application, search for snapd and click Install.

Alternatively, snapd can be installed from the command line:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install snapd


2. Install octave

To install octave, simply use the following command:

$ sudo snap install octave

Methods to Check SSD or HDD in Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Linux server

This article covers the different methods to check if the disk is HDD or SSD in a Linux operating system like Ubuntu 20.04 LTS server. In fact, Checking SSD/HDD health in Linux will help you to identify failed drives and they can be replaced before any data loss occurs. Therefore, If you are a system administrator and responsible for managing Linux systems in Datacenter, then, it is recommended to check the health of the SSD and HDD drives regularly. 

Checking SSD/HDD health in Linux will help you to identify failed drives and they can be replaced before any data loss occurs. 


How to use SMART monitoring tools in Linux ?

Smart monitoring tools is a control and monitoring utility for SATA, SCSI hard drives and solid state drive. The tool comes with a command called 'smartctl'.

Use yum to check which package provides smartctl command:

# yum provides smartctl

The output will suggest that smartmontools is the package that distributes smartctl command.

To Install smartmontools, run:

# yum install smartmontools

Use smartctl command:

# smartctl -a /dev/sda

Install Plank on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the complete installation of Plank on a Linux Mint 20 machine. In fact, Plank is a Linux dock that allows starting pinned applications and manage open windows, for X11 environments (Wayland is not supported). 

Install Geary Email Client on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install and configure the Geary email client on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, Geary is one of the best Email Client apps for Ubuntu. 


Main features of Geary includes:

  • Insert images inline features added when you will compose rich-text messages.
  • Multiple spell-checker Addons added.
  • Provides an Improved interface when you will insert links in rich text messages.
  • Offer message archiving advantages for Yahoo! Mail and Outlook.com.
  • Comes with a very good interface.
  • Easy Saving for remote inline images.
  • Distribution via Flatpak is possible.
  • The user interface, layout, and design were updated.
  • Improved designing when moving and labeling conversations at the same time.
  • It offers to unfold the starred messages when you are in a conversation.
  • The keyboard navigation is awesome.
  • Application keyboard shortcut help (Ctrl + ?) added.
  • Advanced security when displaying any messages.
  • Internal bug fixed.

Install plzip on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the complete procedure of installing the plzip tool on Linux Mint 20. In fact, PeaZip is a file archiving and managing utility based on many open source technologies, essentially 7-zip, p7zip, FreeArc, as well as PEA projects.

Install Muon / Snowflake Graphical SSH Client on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the different ways of installing Muon/Snowflake on your Ubuntu machine. 


Snowflake's functionalities includes:

  • A simple GUI interface that allows to cut, copy, paste, rename, archive, execute scripts, check directory size, change permissions, etc.
  • Text editor which also supports sudo.
  • Powerful search functionality.
  • Log viewer.
  • Disk space analyzer.
  • Handy network tools (ping, Traceroute, port check, etc).
  • SSH Key management.
  • Terminal emulator.

Install Visual Studio Code on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the complete installation procedure of VS Code on Linux Mint 20. In fact, Visual Studio Code provides comprehensive code editing, navigation, and understanding support along with lightweight debugging, a rich extensibility model, and lightweight integration with existing tools.

Install Spotify on CentOS 8 / Rocky Linux - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the complete installation procedure of Spotify on Rocky Linux 8. In fact, Spotify allow users to legally stream the latest and old music directly on their smartphone, TV, or PC with help of a dedicated app or browser and internet.

Install Ring Central Phone on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the complete installation procedure of the Ring Central Phone on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, With RingCentral Phone, you can manage your phone system directly from your preferred device and OS and take your business calls, voice messages, SMS texts, and faxes anywhere.

Install Telnet Server and Client on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how you can easily install the Telnet server and client on your Ubuntu machines. In fact, Telnet is a command protocol that allows a user to connect to a remote host. It makes use of TCP/IP protocol to establish a connection with the remote computer.


The general format of the telnet command is:

telnet [hostname/ipaddress] [port number]


How to install telnet on AlmaLinux / Rocky Linux / CentOS / Fedora ?

Telnet command can be installed using YUM in all CentOS and Fedora distributions.

1. Execute the below command to install telnet:

# yum -y install telnet

2. Verify that the command is installed successfully:

# telnet localhost 22


How to install telnet on Ubuntu / Debian ?

Telnet command can be installed both in Ubuntu and Debian systems using the APT command.

1. Execute the below command to install telnet:

# apt-get install telnet

2. Verify that the command is installed successfully:

# telnet localhost 22

Install BalenaEtcher on Debian 11 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how you install and create a bootable disk drive using balenaEtcher on Debian 11 bullseye. In fact, balenaEtcher is a free and open-source flashing utility tool famous for writing image files such as .iso and .img files and zipped folders onto storage media to create live SD cards and USB flash drives.


How to Keep balenaEtcher Updated ?

To update balenaEtcher, use the apt-update command just as you would with any APT package or system update check:

$ sudo apt update

If an available update is listed, use the apt-upgrade command to proceed:

$ sudo apt upgrade

Install and Use Redshift in Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers How to Install and Use Redshift on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, Redshift is a tool that is used to adjust the color temperature of your screen according to your surroundings. The color temperature adapts to the time of the day. A different color temperature is set for the night and daytime. It applies a red hue or redness effect to your screen or graphical display. 

This helps reduce eye strain and lessen the risk of delayed sleep in case you are working in front of the screen at night. 


How to install redshift on Ubuntu 20.04 ?

To install Redshift, run the following commands:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install redshift redshift-gtk

Install PHP OPcache on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the complete procedure for installing the PHP OPcache on your Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, OPcache is an Apache module for the PHP interpreter which is used to increase performance by storing precompiled scripts in shared memory space. It basically removes the need for PHP to load and parse scripts on each request.


How to Install and Configure PHP OPcache with Nginx ?

1. First, install the Nginx, PHP and other PHP extensions with the following command:

$ apt-get install nginx php php-fpm php-cli php-opcache php-mysql php-zip php-gd php-mbstring php-curl php-xml -y

2. Once all the packages are installed, verify the PHP version with the following command:

$ php -version

3. Next, you will need to enable the PHP OPcache by editing php.ini file.

$ nano /etc/php/7.4/fpm/php.ini

Uncomment the following lines:

opcache.enable=1
opcache.memory_consumption=128
opcache.max_accelerated_files=10000
opcache.revalidate_freq=200

Next, Save and close the file then restart Apache service to apply the changes:

$ systemctl restart nginx php7.4-fpm

4. You can now verify the PHP OPcache installation with the following command:

$ php -i | grep opcache

Install FTP Server on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the complete procedure to install and configure the latest version of the FTP Server on the Linux Mint system. In fact, VSFTP (very secure FTP) is a secure FTP protocol which encrypts information transfer between systems.

To Install VSFTPD on Linux Mint 20, Simply Run the following commands to install VSFTP server on Linux Mint 20:

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt install -y vsftpd

Install Nvidia Drivers on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the complete procedure of installing Nvidia Drivers on your Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, Nvidia GPUs (graphics processing units) have exceptional parallel computing potential, much higher than that of CPUs. 


How to Install Nvidia Driver via Command Line on Ubuntu?

1. Search for Nvidia Drivers

Begin by Opening the terminal by pressing Ctrl+Alt+T or search for "terminal" in the Applications menu. Then, Run the following command:

$ apt search nvidia-driver

The output will display a list of available drivers for your GPU.


2. Update the System Package Repository

Before installing the driver, make sure to update the package repository. Run the following commands:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt upgrade


3. Install the Right Driver for Your GPU

First, Choose a driver to install from the list of available GPU drivers. The best fit is the latest tested proprietary version. The syntax for installing the driver is:

$ sudo apt install [driver_name]

Here, we installed nvidia-driver-340, the latest tested proprietary driver for this GPU, so the command to run would be:

$ sudo apt install nvidia-driver-340


4. Reboot the System

Reboot your machine with the following command:

$ sudo reboot

Install FreeIPA on CentOS 8 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install the FreeIPA on CentOS 8 system. In fact, FreeIPA is a free and open source identity management tool for managing centralized authentication along with account management, policy (host-based access control) and audit.


How to Open Required FreeIPA ports on Firewall ?

FreeIPA uses a number of ports to communicate with its services which must be opened on firewall to allow external connections. You can simply open all the required ports using the service names by running the command below:

$ firewall-cmd --add-service={freeipa-ldap,freeipa-ldaps,dns,ntp} --permanent
$ firewall-cmd --reload

Install MySQL Workbench on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing MySQL Workbench on your Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, MySQL workbench is a GUI tool for managing MySQL database system used by database administrators, database architects and developers to visualize database design.


How to Download and Install MySQL Workbench on Ubuntu ?

1. Update and upgrade your system, before any installation:

$ sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade

2. Now you can download and install Workbench with the command:

$ sudo apt install mysql-workbench

Install LibreNMS on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS using Nginx - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing LibreNMS on your Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, LibreNms works and supports protocols such as SNMP, LLDP, OSPF, ARP, CDP, BGP and FDP to auto-discover the network.  You can also use LibreNms to monitor many network hardware (such as Cisco, Juniper, Foundry, FreeBSD, Brocade) and even operating systems such as Windows, Linux, and FreeBSD.

Install Tmux on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing Tmux on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, Tmux is a popular multiplexer which makes it easy for you to run different applications in separate sessions and switch between them effortlessly.

Tmux is a Linux application that allows multitasking in a terminal window. It stands for Terminal Multiplexing, and is based around sessions. Users can start a process, switch to a new one, detach from a running process, and reattach to a running process.


How to Install Tmux in Linux ?

1. On Debian-based distributions:

$ sudo install tmux

2. On CentOS/REHL:

$ yum install tmux

3. To install tmux on Arch Linux:

$ pacman -S tmux

Once the installation is finished, launch a terminal and type in tmux to start a fresh tmux session:

$ tmux

Install OBS Studio on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing OBS studio on your Ubuntu Linux system. In fact, OBS Studio is a free open source software for capturing, compositing, encoding, recording, and streaming video content.


Main features of OBS Studio includes:

  • Live to stream.
  • Video recording.
  • Fully configurable with multiple video sources.
  • Individual audio mixer with per-source supporting filters.
  • Video transitions.
  • Real-time video/audio capturing and mixing.
  • Free and open-source.
  • Export to multiple formats.
  • Drag and drop.

Install Budgie on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing and removing the Budgie Welcome Screen application on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, the Budgie Desktop environment is popular because of its simplicity yet user-friendly and easy to use. Budgie uses GNOME technologies at its core and is integrated very well with the GNOME stack.

Fix the "The repository does not have a release file" Error in Ubuntu - Step by step guide ?

This article covers ways to resolve faulty Linux system PPAs error "The repository does not have a release file". You can eaily reinstall the software again with fresh PPAs which are supported by your system.

Convert PNG, JPEG to WebP in Ubuntu? ( Also WebP to PNG and JPEG )

This article covers how to convert PNG, JPEG format to WebP in Ubuntu. 


How to Add WebP support to GNOME Image Viewer in Ubuntu and Other Linux ?

1. On Ubuntu-based Linux distributions, you can install this library using a PPA. Use the following commands one by one:

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:krifa75/eog-ordissimo
$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install webp-pixbuf-loader

2. On Fedora, use:

$ sudo dnf install webp-pixbuf-loader

3. On Arch Linux, use:

$ sudo pacman -S webp-pixbuf-loader


How to install gThumb in Ubuntu and other Linux ?

To install gThumb in Ubuntu and other Ubuntu based Linux distributions, use the command below:

$ sudo apt-get install gthumb

Install WoeUSB on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the best procedure to install WoeUSB on your Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, WoeUSB is an open-source tool to create Windows USB bootable installation sticks from an ISO file or DVD on Linux systems. 

Install and Use Neofetch on Linux ( RHEL /CentOS / Arch ) - Step by step Guide ?

This article covers different ways of installing Neofetch on major Linux distributions. In fact, Neofetch is a handy tool when you want to display information about the system you are working on. It's mostly useful in tutorials and guides when you want to show your readers the OS and hardware type you are using.

To see what other options you can specify with Neofetch, run the neofetch --help command.

Install WildFly on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to successfully install and configure WildFly on Ubuntu 20.04. Infact, WildFly offers you an administration dashboard to manage single or multiple domains efficiently.

Install and Configure Neo4j on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing Neo4j on Ubuntu 20.04 Linux system. In fact, Neo4j is a graph database that records relationships between data nodes, whereas traditional relational databases use rows and columns to store and structure data. 


How to use Neo4j ?

To start using Neo4j, let's add some example nodes and then define relationships between them. Connect to Neo4j using cypher-shell:

$ cypher-shell

Disable the Firewall on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the different ways of disabling the Firewall on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, You can easily disable the Firewall for Linux via the following tools:

  • ufw – Used by Ubuntu and Debian based system to manage the firewall.
  • firewalld – Used by RHEL, CentOS and clones. It is a dynamic solution to manage the firewall.

Install OBS Studio on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the procedure of installing the OBS Studio on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, Open Broadcaster Software (OBS) is free, open-source, cross-platform video recording and live streaming software. 

It contains features such as high performance for real-time video/audio capturing, various filters for video sources, an intuitive audio mixer with filters, a streamlined settings panel. OBS is available for Windows, Linux, and Mac.

Install MPV Player on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing the MPV player on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, Mpv supports a wide variety of video file formats, audio and video codecs, and subtitle types.

Install Plex Media Server on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Plex Media Server on Linux Mint 20. In fact, Plex is a streaming media server which enables one to store all the media content in one server and use a client to access them from another computer or a mobile device. 

Install GlassFish on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process to install GlassFish on your Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, GlassFish is being maintained and developed through the GlassFish Project. 


How to Manage the GlassFish Service ?

1. To enable GlassFish at boot:

$ sudo systemctl enable glassfish

2. To start GlassFish:

$ sudo systemctl start glassfish

2. Check the service status using this command:

$ sudo systemctl status glassfish

Install Joomla on Debian 10 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process to follow to install Joomla CMS on Debian 10 Buster system. In fact, Joomla is a popular and widely used CMS (Content Management System) used for creating websites with little or no knowledge in markup or web programming languages.

Install ADB and Fastboot on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process to install the ADB and Fastboot on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, ADB or Android Debug Bridge is a command-line utility that lets us control an android device from the computer itself. Its part of Google Android SDK & can be used to run shell commands or to copy the files to & from the device & also to install or remove the applications from the device.

Fastboot is basically a diagnostics mode that is used to modify the Android file system from the computer when the android device is in bootloader mode. It’s an alternative to recovery mode & is normally used to perform updates or to perform installations.



How to install ADB & Fastboot on Ubuntu systems ?

1. To install both the ADB & Fastboot, execute the following command from the terminal:

$ sudo apt-get install android-tools-adb android-tools-fastboot

2. Once the installation has been finished you can check the ADB version by running the following command:

$ adb version

Install Make on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install make on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, Make package is an utility for directing compilation of system Software.


How to Fix the "make: command not found" Error in Ubuntu ?

1. Before fixing the error, first, you need to verify if make is installed on your system. To do so, use the ls function to check the content of the /usr/bin/make directory:

$ ls /usr/bin/make

2. Further on, check if you are able to execute the command with its absolute path:

/usr/bin/make --version

3. If the above methods don't work and display an error, then your system doesn't have make installed.

4. Update your system's repository list using APT:

$ sudo apt-get update

5. Then, install the make command:

$ sudo apt-get install -y make

6. If the aforementioned commands don't work, you can install make by downloading the build-essential package, as follows:

$ sudo apt install build-essential

The build-essential package consists of all the necessary packages related to package building and compilation. The make command is a part of these packages.

Install Perl on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Perl on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, Perl is a general-purpose, high-level, interpreted programming language. It is the acronym of Practical Extraction and Reporting Language, initially, Perl was designed as a scripting language to make report processing easier.


How to install Perl in Ubuntu ?

1. Refresh the local package repository and upgrade all packages to a newer version:

$ sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade -y

2. Once your system gets updated, use the following command to install Perl in your system:

$ sudo apt install perl

Install ProFTPD on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how you can instantly install ProFTPD on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, ProFTPD will easily facilitate transferring your files from one end to another while fully supporting the file transfer protocol.

Install Kubelet on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Kubelet on a Linux Mint 20 system via the Snap Store. In fact, With the help of this amazing technology, we can easily manage the Kubernetes nodes. 

Install MERN Stack for JS Based Applications on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install the MERN stack on your Ubuntu 20.04 system. In fact, The MERN Stack is made from four components: MongoDB, Express, React, and Node. It provides a bundle of JavaScript technologies used for building dynamic JS websites.

Install Homebrew on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install and configure Homebrew on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, Homebrew is one of the popular package managers for Mac OS X but can be installed on Linux as well to download and install various packages. 

Homebrew Cask extends Homebrew with support for quick installation of applications like Google Chrome, VLC, and more.


Differences between APT and Homebrew or Linuxbrew includes:

1. Both HomeBrew and APT’s main goal is the same that is the installation of various packages using the command line. However, on one hand, APT is the native and well-integrated manager of Debian-based systems including Ubuntu, HomerBrew is a third-party package manager that the user can install manually.

2. Difference in the command syntax, if a user is already familiar with the brew command line on macOS and new to Ubuntu then he or she can use it to install programs without learning new command hooks. However, if you are a user of Ubuntu or Debian, then for sure you don't need to install it.

3. Homebrew maintains a separate user-owned directory, thus no need to run it with sudo to install applications.

4. Where apt-get is generally designed to overwrite previous versions; in the brew, it compiles packages and saves them according to its version in subdirectories. This means we can have multiple versions of a package on the same machine at the same time, however, only one of them will get symlinked into your main Homebrew hierarchy.

5. APT cleanup or uninstall older packages automatically with the update, whereas, in Homebrew, a user needs to run the brew cleanup command.

Install SMPlayer on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the best way of installing the SMPlayer on a Linux Mint 20 machine. In fact, After installing SMPlayer on your system, you can conveniently use it to play your media files. 


How to Install SMPlayer on Linux Mint via snap ?

1. To install snap from the Software Manager application, search for snapd and click Install.

Alternatively, snapd can be installed from the command line:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install snapd

2. To install SMPlayer, simply use the following command:

$ sudo snap install smplayer

Install MongoDB Compass in Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the installation of the MongoDB compass on your Ubuntu 20.04 system. In fact, MongoDB Compass is a graphical tool for MongoDB that helps you to create, delete, read and update the database graphically. It is very similar to phpMyAdmin which allows you to explore your data, run the queries, and interact with the database.

Best Open-source Screenshot Tools for Ubuntu – How to Install and Use?

This article covers the best open source screenshot tools for Ubuntu Linux system. In fact, Screenshots come in handy especially when you want to illustrate or demonstrate something to a colleague or a friend or student. Most Linux distributions, including Ubuntu, come with their default screenshot tools. 

Install Terminator on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the installation method of Terminator on Linux Mint 20. In fact, a Linux terminal environment enables a user to carry out various system functionalities like file management, system update, and applications management through a variety of executable commands.


Main features of Terminator Terminal includes:

  • Multiple plugins support.
  • Simultaneous typing especially when dealing with arbitrarily grouped terminals.
  • Access to numerous keyboard shortcuts.
  • Multiple profiles and layouts support which, through GUI preferences editor, can be saved.
  • Terminals re-ordering through drag-and-drop.
  • Multiple tabs support.
  • Support for grid-like structure terminal arrangement.

Install ipcalc on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the installation and usage of ipcalc on Linux Mint 20. In fact, With the help of this tool, you can easily find out the Netmask, wildcard, network, host ranges, broadcast address, etc. associated with any given IP address. 


Main uses of ipcalc includes:

Validate IP address.

Show calculated broadcast address.

Display hostname determined via DNS.

Display network address or prefix.


How to install ipcalc in Linux ?

To install ipcalc, simply run one of the commands below, based on the Linux distribution you are using:

$ sudo apt install ipcalc  

The ipcalc package should be installed automatically under CentOS/RHEL/Fedora and it is part of the initscripts package, but if for some reason it is missing, you can install it by using:

# yum install initscripts     #RHEL/CentOS
# dnf install initscripts     #Fedora


To find more about the ipcalc usage, you can use:

# ipcalc --help
# man ipcalc

Install 7-zip on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install 7-zip on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, 7-Zip is an archive format that is widely used and gives a high compression rate.


How to Use 7Zip in Ubuntu Linux system ?

If you are on Ubuntu run the following commands:

$ sudo add-apt-repository universe
$ sudo apt update

After you have updated all your repositories run the following command to install 7Zip:

$ sudo apt install p7zip-full p7zip-rar

Install Tesseract on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the installation procedure of Tesseract OCR on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, Tesseract is an optical text recognition (OCR) engine developed by Google used for recognizing a text in image. 


How to Install Tesseract OCR on Ubuntu ?

1. Add the Tesseract OCR repository:

$ sudo add-apt-repository -y ppa:alex-p/tesseract-ocr-devel

2. Install Tesseract OCR 5:

$ sudo apt install -y tesseract-ocr

3. When installation is finished, we can check Tesseract OCR version:

$ tesseract --version


How to Uninstall Tesseract OCR from Ubuntu Linux system ?

If you decided to completely remove Tesseract OCR and related dependencies, run the following command:

$ sudo apt purge --autoremove -y tesseract-ocr

2. Remove GPG key and repository:

$ sudo rm -rf /etc/apt/trusted.gpg.d/alex-p_ubuntu_tesseract-ocr-devel.gpg
$ sudo rm -rf /etc/apt/sources.list.d/alex-p-ubuntu-tesseract-ocr-devel-focal.list

How to Install WordPress with LEMP (Nginx, MariaDB, and PHP) on Rocky Linux 8 ?

This article covers how to install the LEMP stack on Rocky Linux 8. In fact, The terminology LEMP is an acronym for Linux, Nginx (pronounced as Engine X, hence the E) which is a web browser, MariaDB or MySQL – database, and PHP for processing dynamic content). LEMP stack is popularly used for hosting high-traffic and highly scalable web applications and websites.

Install WordPress on Rocky Linux 8 using the LAMP stack - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install WordPress on Rocky Linux 8. In fact, WordPress  is open-source, written in PHP and use a MariaDB/MySQL as a database backend. WordPress is the most popular content management system used to host static and dynamic websites on the Internet. You are now ready to create your blog or website.

Install Linux kernel 5.15 on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install the Linux kernel 5.15 on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, The Linux kernel is the main component of a Linux operating system (OS) and is the core interface between a computer's hardware and its processes. 


How to check Updates for Kernel 5.15 ?

To keep your kernel 5.15 up to date, you will use the apt update and upgrade commands to pull updates from the PPA repository just like any other package on your Ubuntu system.

To check for updates and upgrade.

$ sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade

Remember, for any kernel updates, and you will need to reboot your system.

Install Chromium Browser on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the complete procedure of installing chromium on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, In fact, Popular browsers like Google Chrome, Microsoft Edge, Opera, Vivaldi, and Brave, to name a few, are all based on Chromium. 

Chromium browser is different from Chromium OS. But they both are maintained by the Chromium Project.



How to Install Chromium on Ubuntu Graphically ?

1. Start the Ubuntu Software Center.

2. Search for Chromium Browser and click on the appropriate result.

3. Click on Install.

4. Wait for the installation to finish. Once completed, you will see the "Remove" button.

5. Start Chromium via the Application menu.


How to uninstall Chromium from Ubuntu ?

You can uninstall Chromium browser graphically through the Ubuntu Software center or using the below commands:

1. To uninstall chromium using apt run the following command:

$ sudo apt remove chromium-browser

2. To uninstall chromium using snap run the following command:

$ sudo snap remove chromium

Install Lynis on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing the latest version of Lynis on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, Lynis is an open-source tool for security auditing, compliance testing, and vulnerability detection. Lynis also scan for general system information and possible configuration issues and provide tips for further system hardening.

Install Bpytop Resource Monitoring Tool on CentOS 8 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Bpytop on the CentOS system. In fact, Bpytop provides a command-line interface to monitor system resources including disk, network, process, and CPU in real-time. Bpytop can be installed on several operating systems including Linux, macOS, and FreeBSD. Now you can start using it to monitor your system's resource usage.


How to Install bpytop on your Linux system ?

1. The best way to install the bpytop is by typing the following command to install or upgrade to the latest version:

$ pip3 install bpytop --upgrade

2. On Arch Linux install bytop, Run the pacman commands:

$ sudo pacman -Syu
$ sudo pacman -S bpytop

3. On Debian 11, We use the apt command:

$ sudo sh -c 'apt update && apt -y upgrade && apt -y install bpytop'

4. For RHEL 8 enable EPEL (see how to enable and use EPEL on CentOS 8) and then type the dnf command:

$ sudo sh -c 'dnf update && dnf install bpytop'

5. On FreeBSD install bpytop, Run the pkg command to install bpytop:

$ sudo pkg install bpytop

6. On Ubuntu snap installation, Execute the following snap command:

$ sudo snap install bpytop

Install Kanboard on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing Kanboard open source project management on your Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa. In fact, Kanboard is a free and open-source project management software that helps you visualize and limit your work in progress to focus on your goal. It follows the Kanban methodology and is specially designed for those people who want to manage their projects efficiently and simply. Kanboard also provides support for reports and analytics and can be integrated with external services. 

Install GoAccess on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing the GoAccess real-time web log analyzer on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, GoAccess is a free and open-source weblog analyzer tool used for the analysis of logs in real-time. You can analyze logs through a web browser or terminal. 

GoAccess provides very useful statistics to system administrators including, top visitors, bandwidth, referring sites and URLs, operating systems, IP location, reverse DNS, geolocation, HTTP status code, and much more.

Install qBittorrent on Debian 10 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing qBittorrent on Debian 10 Buster system.  In fact, Qbittorent is an open-source and freely available peer-to-peer bit torrent client. It supports major bit torrent extensions like peer exchange and full encryption, etc.

Load testing on your web server using Siege ( Benchmarking Tool )

This article covers how to test load in web servers using siege benchmarking tool. In fact, Siege is an HTTP load testing tool that you can use to send hundreds of concurrent visitors on your website at once to check how it will perform under pressure and how much availability your server can provide.


How to Install Siege on Ubuntu Linux system ?

It is a very easy task to install Siege on our Ubuntu server. Execute the following command to install siege on Ubuntu:

$ sudo apt-get install siege -y

Install and Use Linuxbrew on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Linux system

This article covers how to install Brew on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Linux. In fact, Homebrew is one of the popular package managers for Mac OS X but can be installed on Linux as well to download and install various packages. Homebrew Cask extends Homebrew with support for quick installation of applications like Google Chrome, VLC, and more.

Basically, you can use the brew command to install the third-party package that maintains the brew community. 

Install Metasploit Framework on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Metasploit Framework on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS OS. In fact, the Metasploit Framework is an open-source project that provides public resources for vulnerability research and code development. It allows security professionals to detect intrusions into their network and identify threats and vulnerabilities in various areas such as software, systems, or networks. Metasploit comes jam-packed with existing exploits but gives the framework to create your own custom exploits.


How to Access Metasploit Console ?

Metasploit provides a command-line utility called mfconsole to manage the Metasploit. You can access it using the following command:

$ msfconsole

You should see the Metasploit console.


Now, run the following command to show all available commands in msfconsole:

$ help

To display all available exploits, run the following command:

$ show exploits

To display all available payloads, run the following command:

$ show payloads

To show more information of any exploit, run the following command:

$ info exploit exploit-name

To show more information of any payload, run the following command:

$ info payload payload-name

To set the specific payload for your exploit, run the following command:

$ set PAYLOAD windows

To display all available target operating systems that can be exploited, run the following command:

$ show targets

To set your target's IP address, run the following command:

$ set RHOST target-ip-address

To set the local IP address for the reverse communications, run the following command:

$ set LHOST ip-address

Install, configure and use Zulip Chat Application on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by Step guide ?

This article covers how to easily install and configure the zulip chat application on your ubuntu Linux system. In fact, Zulip is a free and open-source chat application used for sharing private and public messages. It is a cross-platform software tool able to handle thousands of concurrent chat sessions. It can be integrated with GitHub, Jira, Stripe, Sentry, and more using third-party plugins. 


Install KeePass Password Manager on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install the KeePass Password Manager application on Ubuntu 20.04 system. In fact, KeePass Password Manager offers encryption algorithms AES-256, multiple User Keys, Portable version for Windows 10/7/8; Auto-Type, Global Auto-Type Hot Key, and Drag & Drop of passwords. The user can export saved passwords to TXT, HTML, XML, and CSV Files. If you are using LastPass, Bitwarden, Dashlane, AnyPAssword, Code wallet, and many others, then importing passwords from them is also possible in KeePass.

bat command in Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Linux system – alternative to cat command

This article covers the best way of installing and using bat Command in Linux system. In fact, Bat is a drop-in replacement for the cat command, with some additional cool features such as syntax highlighting, git integration and automatic paging.

sysctl command in Linux - Explained with examples

This article covers how to use the sysctl command in Linux through examples. In fact, sysctl is used to modify kernel parameters at runtime. The parameters available are those listed under /proc/sys/. Procfs is required for sysctl support in Linux.

Install Percona Database Server on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing Percona Database Server on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, Percona Server is fully compatible and a replacement for Oracle MySQL. Percona Server is used by thousands of enterprises to provide superior performance, scalability, and instrumentation for their workloads.

Install Asterisk on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Asterisk on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, Asterisk is a free and open-source VoIP server used for building a VoIP telephony infrastructure for all sizes of organizations. Now, you can now connect your server to any PSTN network and start calling absolutely free.

Install Android Studio on Debian 10 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing the latest version of the Android Studio on the Debian 10 server. In fact, Android Studio is the IDE (Integrated Development Environment) for Android. Built on JetBrains IntelliJ IDEA software and designed for Android development.



How to Add Android studio icon to Desktop ?

  • Open android studio App and click Configure.
  • Here click 'Create Desktop Entry' option.
  • Click 'OK' for adding android studio icon to the desktop.

Install PDF Mix Tool on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the best way to install and use the PDF Mix Tool on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, PDF Mix Tool is an open-source and lightweight application allows to split, merge, rotate and mix PDF files.

Configure Rsyslog Server on Debian 10 / Debian 11 (Bullseye) - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to set up the Rsyslog server on Debian 11. In fact, Rsyslog is a free and open-source logging software that forwards all log files to the centralized log server through the IP network. It helps system administrators to keep an eye on all servers from the central point. Rsyslog works in a client/server model, it receives logs from the remote client on port 514 over the TCP/UDP protocol.


How to Install Rsyslog on any Linux distribution ?

1. First, you will need to install the Rsyslog server package on the server machine. You can install it in Debian / Ubuntu using the following command:

$ apt-get install rsyslog -y

In RHEL based distros like CentOS:

$ sudo yum install rsyslog

2. After the installation, verify the Rsyslog status using the following command:

$ systemctl status rsyslog

Install Screen on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install the Screen tool on your Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, Linux Mint screen provides users an option to open several separate terminal instances within a single terminal window manager. Screen also includes an enhanced command line, giving you extra features and functionality over a standard command line.


How to Install and Use Linux Screen ?

Screen is usually installed by default on all major Linux distributions. If your system doesn't have it preinstalled, don’t worry, the installation process is easy.

1. In the case of Debian, Ubuntu or Linux Mint and its derivatives, you can execute the following command:

$ sudo apt install screen

2. If you are using CentOS, you can install it using the following:

$ sudo yum install screen

Or if the user can't run sudo commands, we need to run it as a root user:

$ yum install screen


How to install htop on your Linux system ?

We can install it on Debian, Ubuntu, Linux Mint and its derivatives with the following command:

$ sudo apt install htop

You can run htop by simply typing the following command in your terminal:

$ htop

Install PeaZip archive on Ubuntu 20.04 / LinuxMint / Debian Linux Distributions - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install the PeaZip utility on the Ubuntu 20.04 system as well as on LinuxMint and Debian distribution. In fact, PeaZip is a file archiving and managing utility. It is a free software utility that deals with approximately 180 formats of file archives. It is based on many open source technologies, essentially 7-zip, p7zip, FreeArc, as well as PEA projects.

Now, you can add compressed files and extract them using this tool. 

Install KVM on Rocky Linux 8 / AlmaLinux 8 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the installation of KVM on Rocky Linux / AlmaLinux. In fact, Kernel-Based Virtual Machine (KVM) is an open-source Linux-based hypervisor that is inbuilt within the Linux Linux Operating systems. Is grouped as a type 1 hypervisor as it possesses type 1 characteristics such as direct access to hardware with VM's. It has kvm.ko kernel module which creates a core virtualization infrastructure and supports both Intel and AMD processors.

Install Lynis security auditing tool on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step process ?

This article covers how to install and use the Lynis tool to audit our Ubuntu system. In fact, Lynis is a free & open-source security audit tool. It is installed by system administrators and security professionals to find the system vulnerabilities. It is easy to use & easy to scan the system. We can easily scan application patch management, file system, ports, Software malware, kernel vulnerability & etc.


How To Install lynis on Ubuntu 21.04 ?

Lynis is an auditing tool for hardening GNU/Linux and Unix based systems. It scans the system configuration and creates an overview of system information and security issues usable by professional auditors. It can assist in automated audits.

To Install lynis Using apt, Update apt database with apt using the following command:

$ sudo apt update

After updating apt database, We can install lynis using apt by running the following command:

$ sudo apt -y install lynis

Install KDE Plasma on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing the KDE Plasma desktop environment in Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, The name KDE is derived from "K Desktop Environment". KDE Plasma Desktop Environment provides Linux users on various distributions an alternative graphical interface to customize their desktop environment and applications for everyday use enhancement.

Install PrestaShop on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing PrestaShop on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, PrestaShop is an open-source e-commerce platform. It allows entrepreneurs and companies to create and develop their own e-commerce sites.


How to Secure PrestaShop with Let's Encrypt SSL ?

1. You can install the Certbot client to install the Let's Encrypt SSL for PrestaShop by running the below command:

$ dnf install letsencrypt python3-certbot-apache

2. Next, obtain and install an SSL certificate for your lets domain with the following command:

$ certbot --apache -d prestashop.example.com

You will be asked to provide your email address and accept the term of service

3. Finally, You can now access your website securely using the URL https://prestashop.example.com.

Install FreeIPA on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing FreeIPA open source identity management system on your Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa. In fact, FreeIPA is free and open source Identity, Policy, and Audit (IPA) suite sponsored by RedHat. It's an IPA solution combination of Linux (Fedora), 389 Directory Server, MIT Kerberos, NTP, DNS Bind, Dogtag, Apache web server, and Python.

Install Pip on Linux Mint 20 - step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing the latest version of Pip Python on the Linux Mint system. In fact, Pip (recursive acronym for "Pip Installs Packages" or "Pip Installs Python") is a cross-platform package manager for installing and managing Python packages (which can be found in the Python Package Index (PyPI)) that comes with Python 2 >=2.7.9 or Python 3 >=3.4 binaries that are downloaded from python.org.


How to Install PIP in Linux Systems ?

To install pip in Linux, run the appropriate command for your distribution as follows:

1. Install PIP On Debian/Ubuntu

# apt install python-pip	#python 2
# apt install python3-pip #python 3


2. Install PIP On CentOS and RHEL

Unluckily, pip is not packaged in official software repositories of CentOS/RHEL. So you need to enable the EPEL repository and then install it like this:

# yum install epel-release 
# yum install python-pip


3. Install PIP on Fedora:

# dnf install python-pip	#Python 2
# dnf install python3 #Python 3


4. Install PIP on Arch Linux:

# pacman -S python2-pip	        #Python 2
# pacman -S python-pip         #Python 3


5. Install PIP on openSUSE:

# zypper install python-pip	#Python 2
# zypper install python3-pip #Python 3


How to Use PIP in Linux Systems ?

To install, uninstall or search new packages, use these commands:

# pip install packageName
# pip uninstall packageName
# pip search packageName

To see a list of all commands type:

# pip help

Install XAMPP on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing the XAMPP stack on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, XAMPP is a cross-platform development environment consisting of Apache, MariaDB, PHP, and Perl. Using XAMPP on an Ubuntu Desktop reduces the installation effort and time for developers. Instead of resolving conflicts between different components of a development stack, developers can focus on their work. 

Upgrade Ubuntu 20.04 to Ubuntu 20.10 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of upgrading Ubuntu from version 20.10 (Focal Fossa to Groovy Gorilla) system. In fact, Being able to upgrade Ubuntu from one version to the next is one of Ubuntu's best features. You benefit from getting the latest software, including new security patches, and all the upgraded technology that comes with a new release without having to resort to reinstalling and reconfiguring your system.

Install Apache JMeter on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing Apache JMeter on your Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, Apache JMeter is mainly designed for testing web application, but now it is also used for database testing, stress testing, distributed testing, and functional testing.

Install Wireguard on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by Step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing Wireguard VPN on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, WireGuard is an open-source and security-focused virtual private network designed for simplicity and ease of use. If you are looking for a lightweight and fast VPN then the WireGuard VPN is the best choice for you.

Install SQLite on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing SQLite on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, Sqlite is a lightweight but feature-rich database management system that is widely used in embedded systems like mobile devices.

Install MailSpring on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the complete process of installing MailSpring on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, Mailspring is a desktop email client with modern features like a unified inbox, snoozing, reminders, templates, offline search, and support for Gmail labels. It even has built-in "dark" and "ubuntu" themes so you can style it to match your desktop.


How to Install Mailspring on Ubuntu through GUI using Ubuntu Software Center ?

1. Click the Ubuntu Software Center icon located on your desktop.

2. Click the search icon to bring up the search box.

3. Type mailspring in the search box and hit Enter. After which, you will see the Mailspring application in the search results. Click the Mailspring application.

4. The Mailspring application installation view will show up on your screen. Click the Install button.

5. Now it will ask you for authentication. Provide the password for authentication. Then click Authenticate button.

6. After authentication, the installation will be started.

7. After the installation is completed, click the Launch button to open the Mailspring application.

8. You can also launch the Mailspring Email client from the Activities menu. Hit the super key to bring up the search bar. Type Mailspring in the search bar. The icon of the Mailspring application will now display on your screen. To open the Mailspring email client, simply click the icon.

Install Cuda on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing Cuda on your Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, the Nvidia CUDA toolkit is an extension of the GPU parallel computing platform and programming model.

Install Typora on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing typora on a Linux Mint 20 machine. In fact, Typora is a simple and configurable document editor that provides excellent Markdown support. This application is ideal for students and professionals who need to write essays and reports. It might be difficult using Typora for multi-file projects or for website publishing.

Install Nethogs on CentOS 8 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install and use Nethogs on the CentOS system. In fact, Nethogs lets you view the bandwidth usage by your programs in order to help you figure out which processes are hogging your network bandwidth. 


Install GIMP on Debian 11 Bullseye distribution - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing GIMP image manipulation and editing tool on Debian 11 bullseye distribution. In fact, Using GIMP, you can easily optimize the image, convert the type of image etc.

GIMP is a cross platform application, available for the Linux, Windows, MAC OS, and FreeBSD etc. 


How to Install GIMP with Flatpak ?

1. First, install Flatpak and its dependencies:

$ sudo apt install flatpak gnome-software-plugin-flatpak -y

2. Next, you need to enable Flatpack for Debian using the following command in your terminal:

$ sudo flatpak remote-add --if-not-exists flathub https://flathub.org/repo/flathub.flatpakrepo

3. Now install SNAP using the following flatpak command:

$ sudo flatpak install flathub org.gimp.GIMP

Type "Y" X2 times, then press the "ENTER KEY" X2 times to proceed with the installation.

Updates are handled by Flatpack automatically every time you log into your system. 

Install HPLIP on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing HP's Linux Imaging and Printing software (HPLIP) on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, HPLIP is an open-source Linux drivers for HP’s inkjet and laser printers. The project is initiated and led by HP Inc. 

Install InfluxDB on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing InfluxDB on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, InfluxDB is an open-source time-series database server that you can use to build Internet of Things (IoT) applications for data monitoring purposes which is built for developers and can handle the massive volumes of time-stamped data produced by sensors and applications.

Install Angular on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing Angular in Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, Angular is an open-source web application framework for building mobile and desktop web applications. It comes with an Angular CLI utility that helps you to create, manage, build and test Angular applications. 

Install Apache Subversion on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing Subversion on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, Apache Subversion, often abbreviated to SVN, is a version control system, distributed as open-source software.

Install Nextcloud with Nginx on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing  and configuring Nextcloud personal cloud storage on your Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, Nextcloud is a free (Open Source) Dropbox-like software, a fork of the ownCloud project. Nextcloud is written in PHP and JavaScript, it supports many database systems such as MySQL/MariaDB, PostgreSQL, Oracle Database, and SQLite.

In order to keep your files synchronized between Desktop and your own server, Nextcloud provides applications for Windows, Linux, and Mac desktops and a mobile app for Android and iOS. Nextcloud is not just a Dropbox clone, it provides additional features like Calendar, Contacts, Schedule tasks, and streaming media with Ampache etc.

Install OwnCloud on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - step by step guide ?

This article covers the complete process of installing  and configuring OwnCloud on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, OwnCloud allows you to host a private cloud for data synchronization, file storage, and file sharing. You can use ownCloud as an alternative to commercial services like DropBox or Box. This software is great for secure collaboration across your projects and teams.

Install Adminer on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing Adminer on your Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, Adminer is an alternative to phpMyAdmin that works from a single PHP file and it's easy to install. It supports databases like MySQL, MariaDB, PostgreSQL, SQLite, MS SQL, Oracle, Elasticsearch, MongoDB, SimpleDB (plugin), Firebird (plugin), ClickHouse, and more.


To install Adminer on your Linux system, simply run the below commands:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt upgrade
$ sudo apt install adminer

Install Dokuwiki on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS

This article covers the process of installing Dokuwiki on your Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, DokuWiki is an open source wiki program written in PHP that doesn't require a database. It stores data in text files.

Install Discord on CentOS 8 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing Discord on CentOS 8 systems. In fact, Discord is a free Voice over IP (VoIP) program that allows users to communicate via voice chat and share text, images, and videos in a user-friendly environment.

Install PowerShell on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - A step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing the latest stable version of Microsoft PowerShell on the Ubuntu 20.04 LTS  (Focal Fossa) system. In fact, PowerShell is a task-based configuration tool used to automate system administrator tasks. 

Install Transmission on CentOS 8 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers the complete process of installing Transmission BitTorrent Client on CentOS 8 system. In fact, Transmission is a good lightweight bittorrent Downloader for Downloading Torrents Files.

Install Mattermost on CentOS 8 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing Mattermost on CentOS 8 system. In fact, Mattermost is an open source, self-hosted team chat and collaboration software.

Install Magento on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - A step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing Magento eCommerce in Ubuntu 18.04 LTS system. In fact, Magento is one of the most popular e-commerce systems available, with many online stores based on the platform. It is written in PHP and uses the Zend Framework. Database-wise it uses the MySQL or MariaDB relational database system.

Install Puppet on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - A step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing the Puppet on 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, Puppet is a free and open-source automated administrative engine for Linux, Unix, and Windows operating systems. It is used for deploying, configuring, and managing servers and performs administrative tasks such as adding users, installing packages, and many more.

Furthermore, It helps system admins to free up time and mental space by automating tasks on thousands of physical and virtual machines. It uses a client-server model. Where Puppet master controls configuration information for Puppet agents while Puppet agents talk to and pull down configuration profiles from the Puppet master.

For additional help or useful information, we recommend you to check the official Puppet website.

Install RabbitMQ on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - A step by step guide ?

This article covers the complete process of installing RabbitMQ on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS (Focal Fossa) system. In fact, RabbitMQ is one of the most popular open-source Message Broker Program which uses Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP) and Streaming Text Oriented Messaging Protocol, Message Queuing Telemetry Transport, and other protocols via Plugins.

For additional help or useful information, we recommend you to check the official RabbitMQ website.

Install Plex Media Server on Debian 10 Buster - A step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install the latest version of the Plex Media Server on Debian 10 Buster. In fact, Plex is a popular free media server that allows you to organize and stream your movies, shows, music, and photos.

For additional help or useful information, we recommend you check the official Plex website .

Install Yarn on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - A step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Yarn on your Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa. In fact, Yarn is a tool for managing, updating, and sharing your Java code. Yarn works through node.js helping to track libraries, dependencies, and even enables you to share solutions with other developers. 

For additional help or useful information, we recommend you to check the official Yarn website.

Install Foxit Reader on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - A step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Foxit PDF Reader on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, Foxit PDF Reader can be used to view, create, edit, organize, sign, scan, and OCR. It can easily export PDF files to office, PDF/A/E/X, and more. Users can collaborate, share, sign, protect, and secure documents using Foxit Reader.

For additional help or useful information, we recommend you to check the official Foxit Reader website .

Install Zabbix on Debian 10 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers the best method of installing Zabbix monitoring software in Debian 10 Buster systems. In fact, Zabbix is 100% free open-source ultimate enterprise-level software designed for monitoring availability and performance of IT infrastructure components. 

For additional help or useful information, we recommend you to check the official Zabbix website.

Install Java 17 LTS (JDK 17 ) On Debian 11 - Different ways to perform it ?

This article covers how to install the latest OpenJDK, and by extension Java 17 on your Debian 11 Bullseye system. In fact, JDK 17 (JDK 17) has brought forward new language enhancements, updates to the libraries, support for new Apple computers, removals and deprecations of legacy features, and work to ensure Java code written today will continue working without change in future JDK versions.

Install Rust Programming Language on Ubuntu 20.04 - A step by step process ?

This article covers how to install Rust on your Ubuntu Linux system. In fact, Rust is an open-source programming language which is extremely fast, prevents segfaults, and guarantees thread and memory safety. It supports zero-cost abstractions, threads without data races, move semantics, efficient C bindings, minimal runtime, and pattern matching. It is very similar to C++ and can run on several platforms.

Install Konqueror File Manager on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - A step by step process ?

This article covers how to Install konqueror software package in Ubuntu. In fact, konqueror software package provides advanced file manager, web browser and document viewer.

You can run the commands given below on the terminal to install konqueror:

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install konqueror 

Install Franz Messenger on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - A step by step process ?

This article covers how to install Franz 5 on your Ubuntu Linux system. In fact, You can connect with up to 70 services at the same time using Franz. 

For additional help or useful information, we recommend you check the official Franz website.

Install Rambox Productivity Suite on Ubuntu 20.10 Edition - A step by step process ?

This article covers how to download and perform the installation of the Rambox productivity suite. Rambox is a cross-platform and open-source application that lets you manage messaging and email applications in a single dashboard. The Rambox application is very useful for businesses and private accounts that use multiple messaging services, email accounts, and team management software. 

Install Node.js and Npm in Ubuntu - Step by step Process ?

This article covers the different ways to install Node.js in your Ubuntu system. Node.js is a popular back-end JavaScript runtime used for creating web servers and scalable network apps. The environment supports server-side scripting - producing dynamic content for web pages before they are served to the user.

NPM is a package manager for JavaScript and the default package manager for Node.js. As such, NPM is installed alongside Node.js as a recommended feature.

Install Speedy Duplicate Finder on Linux Mint 20

This article covers the process of installing the Speedy Duplicate Finder through the Snap daemon on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, With the help of this useful application, you can easily find and remove all the duplicate files existing on your system and hence, you can efficiently utilize your system's storage resources.

Install Discord on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step process ?

This article covers the complete discord installation procedure on Ubuntu 20.04 Linux distribution. In fact, Discord has now become the well-known primary voice chat platform among gamers within a very short time period. Its popularity and use are also increasing in non-gamers day by day.

For additional help or useful information, we recommend you check the official Discord website.

Install AIDE on Ubuntu 20.04 - A step by step process ?

This article covers how to install AIDE on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, AIDE is an intrusion detection system that detects changes to files on the local system. It creates a database from the regular expression rules that it finds from the config file. Once this database is initialized it can be used to verify the integrity of the files. It has several message digest algorithms (md5, sha1, rmd160, tiger, haval, etc.) that are used to check the integrity of the file.

Install Snap on Linux Mint 20 - A step by step Process ?

This article covers how to install snap on Linux Mint 20. In fact, Snaps are 'universal' packages that work across many different Linux systems, enabling secure distribution of the latest apps and utilities for cloud, servers, desktops and the internet of things.

Zip a Folder in Linux Mint 20 Using the Zip Utility

This article covers how you can use the Zip utility to zip your folders of any specific size on Linux Mint 20, and hence those folders can be moved from one place to another very easily.

You can run the below command to install zip and unzip support. If it’s not installed already, it will be installed now:

$ sudo apt install zip unzip

Install Packet Tracer on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - A step by step process ?

This article covers how you can install Packet Tracer on your Ubuntu system. In fact, Packet Tracer is a network simulator software. It allows us to simulate all essential networking devices that are tested in the CCNA exam. 

Now you can start using Packet Tracer to test a small or a complex network topology. 

Install Synfig Studio on Linux Mint 20 - A step by step process ?

This article covers the installation procedure of Synfig Studio on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, Once your system has this tool installed on it, you can easily use it for creating 2D animations.

Install Jitsi Meet on Debian 11 - A step by step process ?

This article covers how to install and use Jitsi Meet on your Debian system. In fact, Jitsi Meet is a free and open-source video conferencing service solution packed with various premium features, such as superior sound quality, high-grade encryption and privacy, and universal multi-platform availability. Jitsi Meet supports multi-platform applications for the web platform, Windows, Linux, Mac OS, and Android.

You can now use Jitsi Meet for your online meetings.

Install Typora on Ubuntu/Debian Distribution - A step by step process ?

This article covers how to install the typora markdown format supportive editor on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, the Typora markdown editor is an excellent tool to use for writing markdown.


How to install typora on linux ?

1. Run the command:

# sudo apt-key adv --keyserver keyserver.ubuntu.com --recv-keys BA300B7755AFCFAE
wget -qO - https://typora.io/linux/public-key.asc | sudo apt-key add -


2. Add Typora's repository:

$ sudo add-apt-repository 'deb https://typora.io/linux ./'
$ sudo apt-get update


3. Install typora:

$ sudo apt-get install typora

Install Strace on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step process ?

This article covers how you can install and use Strace very conveniently on your Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, Strace is a very powerful Troubleshooting tool for tracing system calls.

Install HyperTerminal on AlmaLinux/Rocky 8

This article covers the process of installing HyperTerminal on AlmaLinux. In fact, Hyper is an open-source fully extensible web-based, electronic-based terminal built on HTML/CSS/JS. It is an application that connects computers to other remote systems. It is a highly customizable lightweight terminal accessible across all platforms.

For additional help or useful information, we recommend you check the official Hyper website.


Install MAAS on Ubuntu 20.04 - Via a step by step process ?

This article covers how to install MAAS on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, Metal as a Service – MAAS – lets you treat physical servers like virtual machines in the cloud. Rather than having to manage each server individually, MAAS turns your bare metal into an elastic cloud-like resource.

Install Prometheus on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step process ?

This article covers the process of installing Prometheus open-source monitoring Software on your Ubuntu 20.04 LTS (Focal Fossa). In fact, Prometheus uses visualization tools like Grafana, which uses PromQL, a flexible query language to fetch data for monitoring and analysis.

To learn more about Prometheus, please see the official documentation.

Install Drupal on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step process ?

This article covers the installation of Drupal content management system (CMS) on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, Drupal provides a number of featured like user account registration and maintenance, menu management, RSS feeds, taxonomy, page layout customization and so on.

For additional help or useful information, we recommend you check the official Drupal website.

Install Odoo on Debian 10 Buster

This article covers how to install Odoo on your Debian 10 Buster system. In fact, a few popular applications for Odoo include CRMs, eCommerce, accounting, inventory, point of sale, and project management. These applications are all fully integrated and can be installed and accessed through a web interface. Using Odoo's web interface can make it easier to automate and manage your company's processes.

For additional help or useful information, we recommend you to check the official Odoo website.

Install Moodle on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step process ?

This article covers the best method to install Moodle Learning Management System on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS  Focal Fossa. In fact, Moodle is a popular, free, and open-source Learning Management System (LMS). With Moodle, you can create a fully-featured website for education and training courses, suitable for fully online, hybrid, and in-person classroom experiences. 

For additional help or useful information, we recommend you to check the official Moodle website.

Install ownCloud on Linux Mint 20

This article covers how you can install ownCloud on your Linux Mint 20 machine and use it for creating and using your own file hosting services that can provide you with the functionality of Dropbox and Google Drive.

Install Netdata on Linux Mint 20

This article covers how to install Netdata on a Linux Mint 20 machine and then use this service for measuring the performance of your system. In fact, Netdata is a free and open-source real-time monitoring and troubleshooting tool for cloud servers, containers, applications, and on-premise IT infrastructure. You can view the results in a highly interactive web-dashboard.

Clear apt-cache on Debian 10

This article covers how to clear the cache created by apt in a completely safe way. It is faster and simpler than manually deleting the cache directory. apt (Advanced Packaging Tool) is the package installation and dependency management tool in Debian and other Debian-based distributions. It works on top of 'Dpkg' which is nothing but the Debian package installer.

The way apt installs packages is: it downloads the package for the required software, and additionally it downloads the packages for all the dependencies for the required software.

Install TupiTube Desk on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS

This article covers how to install TupiTube Desk on your Ubuntu Linux system. In fact, TupiTube Desk is a desktop application that targets 2D vectors like images (PNG), storyboards (HTML), and animations (OGG, AVI, MPEG, etc.). 

With TupiTube, you will be able to create and share drawings and animations in a simple way. This project is developed and maintained by the Colombian startup MaeFloresta. It is a project that is covered by the terms of the GNU General Public License v2, which means that TupiTube is a free and open source software.


Main features of TupiTube Desk:

  • TupiTube Desk is a software designed to create and export animations using different techniques such as frame by frame, cut-out animation, stop motion, etc.
  • This is a free-to-use tool. We will be able to find it available to be installed in equipment with Windows, Mac and Gnu / Linux.
  • According to its creators, this is a social project from which seeks to offer a simple tool for all those who want to start in the world of animation. According to its website, that is the main reason for its license and that it is free.
  • Its interface has been designed to provide a high-level user experience for artists and non-artists, using as main development resource the Qt framework.
  • By using this software, we will find basic tool stand for vector illustration It includes rectangles and other shapes, ellipsis, fills, lines, text, and polygons.
  • The tool Paint pot We will be able to use it to fill delimited areas of vector objects in a simple way.
  • We will find Gradient tools, a brush editor, or pencil with smoothness support.
  • We can use the option animation module preview.
  • Option to export the animation. Finished animations can be exported to various formats Archives including: Ogg Theora, AVI, MPEG, SWF. Or as a sequence of images in format PNG, JPEG and SVG.
  • Images can be imported and used as static funds or animated assets.
  • Includes basic support for interpolation of positions, colors, rotation, scale, transparency and opacity have been added.
  • The panel of the Library it will allow us to organize and reuse imported media resources.

Install Drawing Studio on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS

This article covers how to install Drawing Studio on your Ubuntu Linux system. In fact, Drawing Studio is built on top of Gnome's stack and has a vast user base for your painting needs.

Install Pinta on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS

This article covers how to install, launch, and remove pinta on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. In fact, Pinta is more like a Microsoft Paint and with this your painting made simple.


How to install Pinta on Ubuntu ?

1. Install PPA:

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:pinta-maintainers/pinta-stable

2. Update System with Package list:

$ sudo apt-get update

3. Install Pinta:

$ sudo apt-get install pinta

Install PhotoFlare on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS

This article covers PhotoFlare photo editing tool, how to install and use it on Ubuntu Linux system. In fact, PhotoFlare is an impressive image editor for Linux. It supports quick cropping, flip / rotating, scaling, image filters, batch processing, and many more excellent features.

Install Tor browser on Rocky Linux / AlmaLinux 8

This article covers how to install the latest Tor Browser on Rocky Linux 8. In fact, Tor, also known as The Onion Router, is open-source, free software that enables anonymous communication when using online services such as web surfing. The Tor network directs the Internet traffic through an accessible worldwide volunteer overlay network with over six thousand relays and continues to grow. Many users want to find more ways to keep their information and activities anonymous or at least as private as possible, which has led to Tor Browser growing quite popular in recent years as it conceals a user's location and usage from anyone conducting network surveillance or traffic analysis.


Install KeePass on Linux Mint 20

This article covers how you will be able to install the KeePass password manager on your Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, offers encryption algorithms AES-256, multiple User Keys,

Portable version for Windows 10/7/8; Auto-Type, Global Auto-Type Hot Key, and Drag & Drop of passwords. The user can export saved passwords to TXT, HTML, XML, and CSV Files. If you are using LastPass, Bitwarden, Dashlane, AnyPAssword, Code wallet, and many others, then importing passwords from them is also possible in KeePass.

KeePass password manager can also be used very efficiently with the Windows, macOS, iOS, or even Android operating systems.


How to Create Database for Keepass ?

If you already have a password database somewhere else then we can import them to Keepass. For that, click on the File and then Import option. However, if you want to start from scratch then we need to create a database file here on the software:

  • To create a KeePass database, click on the File option in the menu and select "New".
  • You can use the default location to save the Database given by the application or choose the one you want.
  • Give some name to your database.
  • Create a Master password that will use to encrypt the database.
  • And the application is ready to use.
  • After that, you can either add a new Password Entry manually into the database of KeePass to save your login information.

Install Audacity Audio Editor on Ubuntu 20.04

This article covers the different methods to install Audacity audio editor in ubuntu OS. In fact, Audacity is an easy-to-use, multi-track audio editor and recorder for Windows, Mac OS X, GNU/Linux, and other operating systems.


How to Uninstall Audacity audio editor ?

To remove the PPA repository, launch Software & Updates utility and remove relevant line under 'Other Software' tab. Or simply run command in terminal:

$ sudo add-apt-repository --remove ppa:ubuntuhandbook1/audacity

How to remove Audacity audio software from Linux ?

To remove Audacity audio software, either use system package manager or run command in terminal:

$ sudo apt-get remove --autoremove audacity audacity-data

Create a Backup ISO File using Mkisofs in Linux Mint 20

This article covers how you can create a backup ISO file in Linux Mint 20 using Mkisofs. After installing this tool on your system, you can create backups of any desired files very conveniently.

The basic syntax of Mkisofs command is: $ mkisofs -o [filename.iso] [ directory_path]

Alias Command in Linux - With Examples

This article covers how to create aliases and use the alias command in Linux. In fact, the alias command instructs the shell to replace one string with another when executing commands. Aliases are used to customize the shell session interface. Using alias, frequently-used commands can be invoked using a different, preferred term; and complex or commonly-used options can be used as the defaults for a given command.

Install Terminator on Ubuntu 20.04

This article covers how to Install and Use Terminator, the Terminal Multiplexer. In fact, The terminator is similar to the built-in terminal with added features. You can arrange Terminals in a grid, Tab, Drag and drop re-ordering the terminal, use keyword shortcuts, create and save profiles. It is inspired by programs such as gnome-multi-term, quad console, and so on.

For more information about Terminator, visit its documentation.


How to Install terminator on your Linux system ?

For kali Linux:

$ sudo apt-get install terminator

For Ubuntu:

$ sudo apt install terminator

For Arch Linux:

$ sudo pacman -S terminator

For CentOS:

$ sudo yum install terminator

Set / Unset Environment Variables in Linux

This article covers how to set and unset both local and persistent environment variables in Linux. In fact, every time you start a shell session in Linux, the system goes through configuration files and sets up the environment accordingly. Environment variables play a significant role in this process.

Environment variables are a set of key value pairs stored on your Linux and used by processes in order to be able to perform specific operations. with the export command but also by modifying some system files to make them persistent.


How to Set Environment Variables on Linux using export ?

The easiest way to set environment variables is to use the export command:

$ export VAR="value"


How to Unset Environment Variables on Linux Using unset command ?

To unset an environment variable, use the unset command with the following syntax:

$ unset <variable>


Common Set of Environment Variables on Linux:

  • USER : the current username of the user using the system;
  • EDITOR : the program run to perform file edits on your host;
  • HOME : the home directory of the current user;
  • PATH : a colon separated list of directories where the system looks for commands;
  • PS1 : the primary prompt string (to define the display of the shell prompt);
  • PWD : the current working directory;
  • _ : the most recent command executed on the system (by the user)
  • MAIL : the path to the current user’s mailbox;
  • SHELL : the shell used in order to interpret commands on the system, it can be many different ones (like bash, sh, zsh or others);
  • LANG : the language encoding used on the system;
  • DESKTOP_SESSION : the current desktop used on your host (GNOME, KDE)
  • HISTFILESIZE : number of lines of command history stored in the history file;
  • HISTSIZE : number of lines of history allowed in memory;
  • UID : the current UID for the user.

Working with System Locales in Linux

This article covers how to set a system and view the locale on Linux. In fact, Locale settings usually consist of at least a language code, a country/region code, time / date format, numbers format setting, currency format setting, Color setting, and so on.

To view the information regarding the currently installed locale use the following command on the terminal:

$ locale

For more information, see the locale, update-locale and localectl man pages with the below commands respectively:

$ man locale
$ man update-locale
$ man localectl

Generate CSR (Certificate Signing Request) in Linux ?

This article covers the process of creating a CSR file in any Linyx system which is very necessary before applying for an SSL certificate from a Certificate Authority(CA). In fact, Certificate Signing Request(CSR) is a block encrypted text which is given to Certificate Authority when applying for SSL Certificate. Generation of Certificate Signing Request(CSR) for Secure Sockets Layer(SSL) is common in Linux on various distributions. 

CSR is generated on the server, it stores information relating to the organization, domain name, country, a city which is to be included in the certificate.  The CSR Certificate can be used on any website whenever it is necessary to encrypt communications. To generate an SSL certificate, CSR certificate has to be generated. To obtain a self-signed SSL Certificate, it is necessary to create CSR, after generating submit it to a certificate authority to acquire an SSL Certificate. 

Batch Process Images Using Converseen in Ubuntu 20.04 Linux system

This article covers all about Batch processing using Converseen. In fact, Converseen is an open source software for batch image conversion. With this tool, you can convert multiple images to another format, resize, change their aspect ratio, rotate or flip them all at once.

Now you can edit and convert all your images with just a few clicks.


How to Install Converseen on Linux ?

1. On Debian and Ubuntu-based distributions, use:

$ sudo apt install converseen

2. On Fedora, use:

$ sudo dnf install converseen

3. On Arch and Manjaro, use:

$ sudo pacman -Sy converseen

Install Docker on Debian 11 bullseye system

This article covers how to install Docker engine on the Debian 11 bullseye system. In fact, Docker is a toolset to build applications and CI/CD pipelines to build, ship and run your applications in containers.

Install Audacity on Linux Mint 20

This article covers how to install Audacity on your Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, Audacity is a very powerful and popular editing application that can be very useful when manipulating audio files. With the help of this useful tool, you will not only be able to record your audios but will also be able to edit them very efficiently.


How to Install Audacity via Snap Store and Launch on Linux ?

1. Perform system update:

$ sudo apt update

2. Install Snapd:

$ sudo apt install snapd

3. Install Audacity:

$ sudo snap install audacity

4. Once Audacity has been installed via Snap, run the Audacity application by searching for the term 'audacity' in the Application menu.

5. Click the Audacity icon to open Audacity.

Install and Configure Grsync on Linux Mint 20

This article covers how to install and configure as well as its advanced and extra options to create better backups in your Linux Mint system. In fact, Grsync is an open-source simple, great, and easy to use graphical user interface for the popular rsync command-line tool.

To install Grsync on your system, simply run the following command:

$ sudo apt install grsync

Best 8 Open-Source free CAD Software for Linux

This article covers the best Open-source free CAD modeling software for your Linux system. In fact, CAD software refers to a type of software program used by engineers and designers to create 2D and 3D physical component models. These applications have an easy-to-use user interface, toolbars, and a large library of 3D models. Many tools also enable you to print on multiple pages. This includes LibreCAD, FreeCAD, OpenSCAD, TinkerCAD, BRL-CAD, Open Cascade and QCAD.


How does CAD Software work ?

  • Initially, a graphics card or a CAD software package will be installed in your computer to enable your typical CAD system work.
  • The graphics kernel is the heart of the CAD software package.
  • GUI is an essential part of the CAD packages. The usage of GUI involves obtaining user input by displaying the CAD geometry.
  • The mouse and the keyboards are mostly used as the input devices. However, digitizer, tracker ball, etc are also used sometimes.

Install Volatility on Linux Mint 20

This article covers to install Volatility on your Linux Mint 20 system via a step by step guide. In fact, Volatility is a powerful tool used for analyzing memory dumps on Linux, Mac, and Windows systems.

Install GDU on Linux Mint 20

This article covers the right steps to install the GDU disk usage analyzer on your Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, GDU Disk Usage Analyzer is a graphical disk usage analyzer for GNOME. It is inspired by godu, dua, ncdu, and df and is intended primarily for SSD disks to utilize parallel processing fully.

Install Jenkins on CentOS 8

This article covers how to install Jenkins on CentOS system. In fact, Jenkins is an open-source software written in Java and Scala which allows users the ability to automate almost any task and, it saves significant time that can be better utilized addressing other issues. When automating tasks with Jenkins, users can optimize their workflow by quickly automating the jobs that servers cannot do themselves.

Also, you will learn how to manage Jenkins services, allow them in firewall, and access Jenkins using the web browser.

Install and Use NVM on Debian 11

This article covers the basic nvm commands that you can use to install and manage multiple versions of Node.JS. In fact, Node.js uses an event-driven, non-blocking I/O model that makes it lightweight and efficient, perfect for data-intensive real-time applications that run across distributed devices.


You can use the following command to list installed version's of Node for the current user:

$ nvm ls 

With this command you can find available Node.js version for the installation:

$ nvm ls-remote 

To find the default Node version set for the current user, run the command:

$ nvm run default --version 

Methods to Install OpenBoard on Linux Mint 20

This article covers how to Install OpenBoard on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, OpenBoard is an open source cross-platform teaching software for interactive whiteboard designed primarily for use in schools and universities. It can be used both with interactive whiteboards or in a dual-screen setup with a pen-tablet display and a beamer.

Install Ntopng on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS

This article covers how to install ntopng on Ubuntu OS and access its web interface. In fact, Ntopng is an essential application for monitoring and troubleshooting network problems.


More about Ntopng

Ntopng basically is a network traffic probe that will monitor network usage. It is based on libpcap, a Library written as part of a larger program called TCPDump. Ntopng is based on Redis key value server rather than traditional database, leverages nDPI for protocol discovery, supports host geolocation, and can display real-time flow analysis for connected hosts.


Main Features of Ntopng:

  • Packet capture → Packet capture / transmission using basic hardware with PF_RING. Zero-copy package distribution across threads, applications, and virtual machines. Includes Libpcap support for seamless integration with legacy applications.
  • Traffic recording → Lossless network traffic recording of 10 Gbit and above with n2disk. Industry standard PCAP file format. It allows to quickly retrieve packages using BPF. Accurate traffic reproduction with disk2n.
  • Network probe → nProbe- NetFlow v5 / v9 / IPFIX extensible probe with plug-in support for L7 content inspection.
  • Report on the use of the IP protocol → Even going so far as to classify it by type of protocol.
  • Traffic analysis → High speed web based traffic analysis and flow collection using ntopng. Persistent traffic statistics in RRD format. Layer 7 analysis leveraging nDPI, an open source DPI framework. Even going so far as to classify the traffic according to the source / destination.
  • Geolocate and Overlay Hosts → This will be done on a geographic map.
  • Alert engine → We can capture anomalous and suspicious hosts.
  • Produce network traffic statistics → Using HTML5 / AJAX technology.
  • We will have full support for current network protocols → Including IPv4 and IPv6.

Install Brave Browser on Debian 11 bullseye

This article covers How to Install Brave Browser on Debian 11. In fact, Brave is an open-source privacy-focused Internet web browser, which distinguishes itself from other browsers by automatically blocking online advertisements and website trackers in its default settings. 

Install Anaconda on CentOS 8

This article covers how you install Anaconda on your CentOS system. In fact, Anaconda manages many pre installed packages and that packages are helpful for data science, Machine Learning and Artificial intelligence applications. Once installed on your system, you can now start building your machine learning projects.

Install LAMP Server on Debian 11

This article covers a step-by-step procedure of how you can install LAMP stack on the Debian 11 Bullseye server. In fact, LAMP is a popular opensource stack that stands for Linux Apache MySQL/MariaDB and PHP. It’s mostly used by front-end and back-end developers to test and host a website. The stack comprises of 3 components. First, we have  Apache, which is a web server. Then we have Mariadb, which is a fork of MySQL and PHP which is a server-side scripting language. All the components are absolutely free and opensource.


How to Install Apache webserver on your Linux system ?

1. To get started, log into your server instance and update the package lists with the below command:

$ sudo apt update

2. Once your packages are up to date, install the Apache webserver with the below command:

$ sudo apt install apache2 apache2-utils

3. Once installed, verify the status of apache to see if it is running, by executing the command:

$ sudo systemctl status apache2

4. If apache is not running, you can start and enable it on boot using the commands:

$ sudo systemctl start apache2
$ sudo systemctl enable apache2

Install Links Browser on Ubuntu 20.04

This article covers how to install, run, and remove the Links browser for Ubuntu 20.04 LTS terminal. In fact, Links provides a pull-down menu system, renders complex pages, has partial HTML 4.0 support (including tables, frames and support for multiple character sets and UTF-8), supports color and monochrome terminals and allows horizontal scrolling.


How To Install links on Ubuntu ?

1. Update system:

$ sudo apt-get update

2. Install links:

Ater updating the OS run following command to install the package:

$ sudo apt-get install links

Best 6 Terminal Based Browsers For Ubuntu 20.04

This article covers the best Command Line Browsers on Ubuntu OS.

Install MiddleMan on Ubuntu 20.04

This article covers the installation of ruby, middleman, and related gems on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Linux system. In fact, Middleman is a Ruby-powered static site generator which follows an easy-first approach to building static sites. It has powerful features for maintaining static blogs, like easy tag generation, quick commands for listing categorized articles and pagination.

You can install Middleman with Ruby using this command:

$ gem install middleman

Install Nethogs on Ubuntu 20.04 - Follow these steps ?

This article covers how to install and use the Nethogs utility in Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. In fact, nethogs is a networking monitoring tool for Linux capable of monitoring any specific network interface or all the networking interfaces on your computer. Also, it shows bandwidth usage per process on your computer in real time.


How to install nethogs on Ubuntu / Debian ?

nethogs is not installed on Ubuntu/Debian by default. But, it is available in the official package repository of Ubuntu/Debian.

1. First, update the APT package manager cache with the following command:

$ sudo apt update

2. Now, install nethogs with the following command:

$ sudo apt install nethogs

3. Now, to check whether nethogs is working, run the following command:

$ nethogs -V

Install NetHogs on Linux Mint 20 - Follow these steps ?

This article covers how to install the NetHogs network bandwidth monitoring utility very easily on your Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, you will be able to get the network bandwidth usage in real-time very efficiently without any sort of hassle.

Install HexChat on Debian - The easiest method ?

This article covers how to install and remove HexChat 10 buster edition. In fact, HexChat is a nice chatting utility to connect with IRC servers.

Installing hexchat package on Ubuntu is as easy as running the following commands on terminal:

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install hexchat


How to Install HexChat in Linux ?

Run the below command as per your Linux distribution:

$ sudo apt install hexchat [On Debian/Ubuntu & Mint]
$ sudo yum install hexchat [On CentOS/RHEL 7]
$ sudo dnf install hexchat [On CentOS/RHEL 8 & Fedora]
$ sudo yay -S hexchat [On Arch Linux]
$ sudo zypper install hexchat  [On OpenSUSE Linux]
$ sudo pkg install hexchat [On FreeBSD]

Add Multiple Time Zones in Ubuntu Linux - Follow this procedure ?

This article covers how Gnome-clocks can help keep track of time in multiple time zones for you. Now you can keep up with your work meetings and deadlines across the globe with a simple click. You can explore and use Gnome-clocks other features like timer, stopwatch, and Alarms and get a hundred percent performance out of it.

To install GNOME Clocks, simply run the below commands:

$ sudo apt install gnome-clocks

Install w3m Browser on Ubuntu 20.04 - Easy steps to follow ?

This article covers how to install, run, and remove a fantastic, multi-color, and terminal-based browser w3m for Ubuntu 20.04 LTS terminal. In fact, If you're looking for text-based web browser To use it from the terminal and Lynx does not convince you, W3M can be a good alternative. This is a modern text-based terminal web browser for Gnu / Linux it has a lot to offer. 

Install Pelican on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install Pelican using pip on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. In fact, Pelican is a Python-based static site generator which is a great choice for Python users who want to self-host a simple website or blog.

To Install pelican package on Ubuntu, simply execute the following command on terminal:

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install pelican


How to install pelican-foli on Ubuntu via Snaps ? 

1. Enable snapd

snapd can be installed from the command line:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install snapd

2. Install pelican-foli, simply use the following command:

$ sudo snap install pelican-foli

Install phpMyAdmin on AlmaLinux / CentOS 8 - Follow the steps outlined here ?

This article covers the installation and configuration procedure of phpMyAdmin on CentOS 8 / AlmaLinux 8. It is one of the most popular database administration tools used by hosting companies and system administrators for performing database activities such as creating, deleting, querying tables, columns, relations, indexes, users, permissions, etc. Now, you can create and manage all the databases conveniently without the need of running SQL queries.

Manage Startup Programs on Ubuntu 20.04 - The right way ?

This article covers how to add programs to the Startup programs, launch the startup programs with a delay, and how to remove the programs from the Startup programs. In fact, Every time you boot in to an operating system, a number of programs start running automatically. These are called 'startup applications' or 'start up programs'.


What you will learn regarding managing startup applications on Linux systems:

  • Learn to add (almost) any program in the startup applications list to start them automatically at each boot.
  • Learn to remove a program from the startup applications list so that you have a faster system when you boot into it.
  • Learn to delay the running of a startup application so that it runs automatically but with a time delay. This way, not all startup applications consume the system resource simultaneously.

Install and Configure Apache Spark on Ubuntu 20.04

This article covers how to install and configure apache spark on ubuntu. In fact, Apache Spark is a framework used in cluster computing environments for analyzing big data. This platform became widely popular due to its ease of use and the improved data processing speeds over Hadoop. Spark basically supports various APIs for streaming, graph processing, SQL, MLLib. It also supports Java, Python, Scala, and R as the preferred languages. Spark is mostly installed in Hadoop clusters but you can also install and configure spark in standalone mode.

Install Yarn on Rocky Linux 8 / AlmaLinux 8 - Best method ?

This article covers the process of installing Yarn on Rocky Linux system. In fact, Yarn is a tool for managing, updating, and sharing your Java code. Yarn works through node.js helping to track libraries, dependencies, and even enables you to share solutions with other developers.

Install Yarn on Linux Mint 20 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install yarn on Linux Mint 20 distribution using the command line method. In fact, Yarn is a JavaScript package and dependency management tool that helps users to automate the tasks of installing, updating, removing, and configuring NPM packages. It is a good dependency package manager that is very helpful for experienced developers as well as for learners. 


How to Remove Yarn from Linux Mint 20 ?

If you no longer require Yarn and want to remove it from your Linux Mint 20 system, then it is very easy and straightforward to remove.

Issue the following command in the terminal to remove Yarn completely from your system:

$ sudo apt remove--autoremove yarn

Install GNS3 on Ubuntu 20.04 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install GNS3 on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS OS. In fact, GNS3 is an incredibly powerful tool that virtualizes real network hardware and helps you to test and verify real-world network deployments. It provides a risk-free virtual environment to design and build a network with your considered size and even with no hardware. GNS3 can be installed on Windows, macOS, and on Linux. It supports Linux distributions (Ubuntu-based distributions 64 bit only) and emulates Linux switches and multiple Linux appliances.

Setup .Net Core in Ubuntu 20.04 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers a step by step procedure on how to install dotnet core on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Linux system. 

Install Stacer on Linux Mint 20 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers the best procedure of Installing Stacer on Linux Mint 20. In fact, Stacer is an amazing tool for Linux system monitoring and optimizing. It is a multi utility tool with features that allows you to easily manager your Linux system. Once installed successfully, Stacer can easily be used for system monitoring and improving its performance and efficiency.


How to Install Stacer on Linux ?

If you want the latest version of Stacer then open a new Terminal Window and execute the following command line by line:

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:oguzhaninan/stacer
$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install stacer

This will add Stacer PPA in your repository and install the latest version of Stacer on your system.

However, if you want to install the most stable release (tested) of stacer, which can be installed from the official repository of your operating system then open terminal and execute the following command:

$ sudo apt install stacer

Install and Use Trash CLI on Linux Mint 20 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers how you can install and use the Trash CLI on a Linux Mint 20 machine. In fact, trash-cli is a command line interface that trashes files and records the original absolute path, deletion date, and associated permissions. It uses the same trashcan used by popular Linux desktop environments such as KDE, GNOME, and XFCE which can be invoked from the command line (and via scripts).


Trash-cli provides these commands:

$ trash-put           #trash files and directories.
$ trash-empty         #empty the trashcan(s).
$ trash-list          #list trashed files.
$ trash-restore       #restore a trashed file.
$ trash-rm            #remove individual files from the trashcan.


How to Install Trash-cli in Linux ?

The straightforward way of installing trash-cli is by using easy install tool as follows:

$ sudo apt-get install python-setuptools		#Debian/Ubuntu systems
$ sudo yum install python-setuptools #RHEL/CentOS systems
$ sudo easy_install trash-cli

Install Jekyll on Ubuntu 20.04 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install and publish a static website using Jekyll. In fact, Jekyll is an open-source static-site generator written in Ruby which allows for quick execution of commands that help manage your site from initial to production deployment, all from your command line.

Install Ghost CMS on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - A step by step guide ?

This article covers the installation procedure of Ghost CMS on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. In fact, Ghost is a lightweight, open-source Content Management System (CMS) and blogging platform built with Node.js. It is easy to install and update with Ghost-CLI.


How to Troubleshoot Ghost CMS ?

1. Troubleshoot the system for any potential issues when installing or updating Ghost:

$ ghost doctor

2. Get help about Ghost:

$ ghost --help

Rsync and BTRFS in Linux - Their differences ?

This article covers how Rsync and BTRFS differ from each other. In fact, the really main difference is that RSYNC can create snapshots on an external disks. Not the same BTRFS. So, if your need is to prevent an unrecoverable crash of your hard disk, you must use RSYNC. After that using a live boot media (pendrive or DVD) you can install on the live boot media Timeshift and the restore your system from the external disk.

Install HTTrack Server on Ubuntu 20.04 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install HTTrack, run, and remove HTTrack on Ubuntu Linux system. In fact, HTTrack is an exclusive utility to copy web pages to a local disk for offline development and browsing to test web applications. 


How to Install Httrack on Kali Linux ?

You can install Httrack by running the following commands:

$ apt-get update
$ apt-get install httrack

Customize the Terminal on Ubuntu 20.04 - how to do it ?

This article covers how to resize and reconfigure our Ubuntu terminal. 

Disable Screen Timeout in Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers the different methods you can apply to disable the screen lock in ubuntu. In fact, the screen delay option exists to conserve power when your computer is idle. If the default timeout settings are hindering your day-to-day workflow.

It is important to clarify that the screen lock provides a light security mechanism, if someone has physical access to your device, even with a screen lock, he will be able to gather the information from the disk or to reset the root password.

Install Oracle Java 16 On Ubuntu 18.04 / 20.04 / 21.04 - A step by step Process ?

This article covers the right steps to successfully install Oracle Java 16 on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, The Java JDK (Java Development Kit) is a software development environment used for developing Java Applications. The JDK is a collection of programming tools, notably JRE (Java Runtime Environment), Java (Loader for Java Application), Javac (Compiler), Jar (Archiver), etc. You can now proceed and start developing your Java applications with the enhanced features provided with the latest Java 16 version.

To Check the java version Installed on the system, sumply issue the following command:

$ java -version


How to Set Default Java Version on Ubuntu Linux system ?

1. You can Use the alternatives command to set the default java version.

Simply run the below command on the terminal:

$ sudo update-alternatives --config java

Then you will be given an output such as this to Select Java:

There are different choices for the alternative java (providing /usr/bin/java).


  Selection    Path                                         Priority   Status
------------------------------------------------------------
  0            /usr/lib/jvm/java-11-openjdk-amd64/bin/java   1111      auto mode
  1            /usr/lib/jvm/java-11-openjdk-amd64/bin/java   1111      manual mode
  2            /usr/lib/jvm/jdk-11.0.12/bin/java             2         manual mode
  3            /usr/lib/jvm/jdk-16.0.2/bin/java              1         manual mode
* 4            /usr/lib/jvm/jdk1.8.0_301/bin/java            3         manual mode
Press  to keep the current choice[*], or type selection number: 1

2. Then, Enter the number below the selection column to set the default Java version and press Enter button to proceed.

Install Protobuf on Linux Mint 20 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers how you can easily install the Protobuf library on your Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, Protocol Buffer, abbreviated as Protobuf, is an open source library developed by Google that allows to serialize or deserialize structured data. It is basically used to communicate with one another over a network and to store data when building applications.


How to Install Protobuf Using Command Line on Ubuntu ?

1. Update all the previous packages installed on your system:

$ sudo apt update

2. Now to install Protobuf compiler on your Ubuntu system, run the below mentioned command:

$ sudo apt install protobuf-compiler


How to Remove Protobuf from Ubuntu System using software center ? 

1. Open the ubuntu software manager and click on installed tab.

2. Now search for "Protobuf" from the list of apps and click on "Remove" button in front of it.

3. A permission dialogue box will get open click on "Remove" to uninstall the application. 

And now protobuf will be uninstalled successfully and no longer exist in the list.

Install GDebi on Linux Mint 20 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers the installation procedure of the GDebi tool on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, Gdebi is a lightweight deb packages installer is default in Ubuntu Desktop. It help you to Install and Manage Packages you downloaded from 3rd Party sites and Software centre.


How to Install GDebi through Command Line ?

If you don't have gdebi installed you'll get the below error:

$ sudo gdebi command not found

1. Update the APT Repository:

$ sudo apt-get update

2. Install Gdebi now:

$ sudo apt-get install gdebi

Install Stacer System Optimizer & Monitoring Tool on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers the different ways and steps to perform the installation of Stacer on Ubuntu Linux system. In fact, Stacer lets you perform several Linux optimization and monitoring tasks through a single utility. Now you can manage and monitor your system easily and efficiently using a graphical tool.

To install the latest version of Stacer in Debian and Ubuntu-based Linux distributions, use the following PPA y running the commands:

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:oguzhaninan/stacer
$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install stacer

Allow Remote Connections to MySQL - Best Method ?

This article covers how to allow remote connections to a MySQL server. Hosting databases and web servers on a separate database server can improve security, hardware performance, and enable you to scale resources quickly.

One of the most frequently observed database bottlenecks encountered by large projects is high MySQL traffic. Sure, we could talk about moving to a bigger cloud instance size, faster cores, and better storage, but that’s too obvious and costly. Instead, we would like to focus on several tips that can reduce traffic with a bit of configuration.


Methods to reduce Internet traffic when connecting to the remote host:

  • Disable and/or optimize the high-load features of your application.
  • Use ProxySQL to enable connection pooling. This will prevent your application from overloading MySQL with a multitude of concurrent connections. Another nice feature of ProxySQL helps cache query results for a certain period of time.
  • Monitor your databases for performance bottlenecks.
  • Identify and optimize queries that cause high load. If you use dbForge Studio for MySQL, you get a specialized tool—Query Profiler—which helps you deal with this task easily.
  • Add missing indexes and eliminate redundant and unused ones.
  • Conduct a thorough check of your background operations. Some of them can be postponed, some may work just as effectively with limited resources (e.g. limited concurrencies for batch jobs), and some may be perfectly running on replicas.

Install GPing on Linux Mint 20 - Best Method ?

This article covers the best method to get GPing installed on your Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, gping gives ping a nice graph in your Linux terminal.


How to Install gping on Linux Mint ?

On Linux Mint 20, /etc/apt/preferences.d/nosnap.pref needs to be removed before Snap can be installed. This can be accomplished from the command line:

$ sudo rm /etc/apt/preferences.d/nosnap.pref
$ sudo apt update

To install snap from the Software Manager application, search for snapd and click Install.

Alternatively, snapd can be installed from the command line:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install snapd

To install gping, simply use the following command:

$ sudo snap install gping

Check your HDD / SSD Health in Ubuntu 20.04 - The best way ?

This article covers the different ways to check the health of your Hard Disk Drives and Solid-State Drives. In fact, SMART (Self-Monitoring, Analysis, and Reporting Technology) is a feature enabled in all modern hard disk drives and SSDs to monitor/test reliability. It checks different drive attributes to detect the possibility of drive failure. 


What is the need to check Linux system SSD and HDD drives ?

If you are a system administrator and responsible for managing Linux systems in Datacenter. Then, it is recommended to check the health of the SSD and HDD drives regularly. It will help you to identify failed drives and they can be replaced before any data loss occurs. S.M.A.R.T is a tool used to monitor the health status of SSD and HDD. It also allows you to perform on-demand tests on the drive.


How to Test SSD Health using Smartctl ?

Smartctl is a command-line utility tool that can be used to check S.M.A.R.T-enabled HDD or SSD status in the Linux system.

Smartctl utility tool comes with the package smartmontools. Smartmontools is available by default in all Linux distributions including Ubuntu, RHEL and Centos and Fedora.

To install smartmontools in Linux, run the below command:

$ sudo apt install smartmontools 

To Start Smartmontools service, execute the below command:

$ sudo /etc/init.d/smartmontools start

Smartd service will start automatically after the successful installation.

If not started, start smartd service:

$ sudo systemctl start smartd

Install Vsftpd with SSL / TLS on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Procedure ?

This article covers a complete guide on how to install Vsftpd with SSL/TLS on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, sftpd (i.e. very secure FTP daemon) is an FTP server software for Linux and other Unix-like systems. An FTP server software facilitates the transfer of files from a client computer to the server and vice versa.

Install Buttercup on Linux Mint 20 - Best Method ?

This article covers methods to install Buttercup on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, Buttercup is a simple, yet mature and fully functional password manager. If you ever need a password manager, Buttercup may be a good option. For more details, see the site project website.

Install OnlyOffice on Linux Mint 20 - Best Method ?

This article covers the Installation procedure of OnlyOffice on your Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, ONLYOFFICE for Linux Mint 20 is an online office that enables you to manage documents, projects, team and customer relations in one place. Also, it offers a complete productivity suite with document management, project management, CRM, calendar, mail, and corporate network. 


How to Install ONLYOFFICE Desktop Editors via Snap ?

The easiest way of installing ONLYOFFICE Desktop Editors might be using a snap package.

1. To get the application installed, just execute the following command:

$ snap install onlyoffice-desktopeditors

2. When the installation process is over, you can launch ONLYOFFICE Desktop Editors using this terminal command:

$ snap run onlyoffice-desktopeditors

Install CUPS Print Server on Linux Mint 20 - Best Method ?

This article covers steps to install the CUPS print server on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, Linux uses the Common UNIX Printing System, also known as CUPS. CUPS uses the Internet Printing Protocol (IPP) to allow local printing and print sharing. The /etc/cups/ directory stores all the configuration files for printing. However, these files can be easily managed with the Printer Configuration Tool in Linux. Once it is installed on your system, you can use it very effectively for managing multiple printers and computers that wish to use those printers.

Install Pip on Ubuntu 18.04 System - Step by Step Procedure ?

This article covers how to install PIP on Ubuntu 18.04 for Python 3 and Python 2. In fact, PIP is the default package manager for Python packages which allows you to install, and manage Python packages in an easy and convenient manner. 


How to Install pip for Python3 ?

Pip3 can be installed on Ubuntu using the APT package manager. 

1. To start off, update the package lists as shown:

$ sudo apt update

2. To install pip3 run the command:

$ sudo apt install python3-pip

3. Verify that pip3 is installed by running the command:

$ pip3 --version


For assistance on more command options and usage of pip3, run the below command:

$ pip3 --help

Install Python on Ubuntu 18.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the different ways to install Python on Ubuntu Linux system. In fact, Python is an object-oriented, high-level programming language. It is open-source with a large community. Python is used as a key language among the top tech companies like Google. Now you can start developing your Python 3 project.

Install and Configure Fail2ban on Ubuntu 20.04 - Do it this way ?

This article covers how to install Fail2ban and protect SSH from illegitimate attempts. For webmasters or anyone managing Linux server that is accessible over the Internet, the risks of the server being compromised is high, so implementing best security practices to help mitigate these attacks should be a priority. In fact, Fail2ban is a tool that help protect Linux servers from brute force and other automated attacks by monitoring the services logs for malicious activity. It uses regular expressions to scan the server's logs for malicious attempts and bans offending IPs for a specific length of time using the system's firewall.


How to Install Fail2ban on any Linux system ?

Fail2ban packages are automatically included in Ubuntu repositories. To install it, simply run the commands below:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install fail2ban

Once the installation is complete, the service should automatically start up and ready to be configured.

To check if the service is up and operational, run the commands below:

$ sudo systemctl status fail2ban

Install Shotcut on Linux Mint 20 - The complete guide ?

This article covers the installation of Shotcut on a Linux Mint 20 system with the help of the Flatpak package manager. In fact, Shotcut is a Free, Open Source, Cross-Platform Video Editor.

Install Bitwarden on Ubuntu 20.04 - A complete guide ?

This article covers how to install and setup free version of Bitwarden for individual use. Now start saving your passwords and other confidential information in your Bitwarden vault. Using Bitwarden you can easily and safely generate, store, and secure unique passwords from any location or device. It is compliant with Privacy Shield, HIPAA, GDPR, CCPA, SOC2 and SOC3 security standards and comes with AES-256 bit encryption, salted hashing, and PBKDF2 SHA-256.


How to Install Bitwarden via Snap ?

1. Open the terminal app (ctrl+alt+t) and run below Bitwarden password manager snap installation command:

$ sudo snap install bitwarden

2. After the installation you can open Bitwarden from the application menu or via this command.

$ bitwarden

3. It also comes with a command-line support. You can install the Bitwarden command-line cli app via the below command.

$ sudo snap install bw

Install Pandoc on Linux Mint 20 - Complete Procedure ?

This article covers the installation procedure of Pandoc on a Linux Mint 20 machine. This tool can be utilized to design a wide range of different documents. 

To check Pandoc Version, simply run the below command:

$ pandoc -v


To Update System and Install Pandoc, simply run the following command:

$ sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install pandoc

Install OwnCloud on Rocky Linux 8 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers how to successfully install OwnCloud on Rocky Linux 8. In fact, OwnCloud is an open source project that can be installed on your server to securely store and access files. Also allows you to share and collaborate contents that lets teams work on data easily from anywhere, on any device. With the support of a lot of plugins, Nextcloud becomes such a Collaboration software. You can install plugins for project management, video conferencing, collaborative editing, note-taking, email client, etc.


To Open port  80 in firewall, use the following command:

$ firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-port=80/tcp --permanent
$ firewall-cmd --reload


How to Install Apache or httpd web server on the Rocky Linux server ?

1. Simply Execute the dnf command below to install the httpd web server:

$ sudo dnf install httpd

Type "y" and press "Enter" to confirm and install httpd packages.

2. Now, enable and start the httpd service using the following command:

$ sudo systemctl enable httpd
$ sudo systemctl start httpd

The "systemctl enable" command will enable the service to start at every boot.

3. Finally, run the command below to verify the httpd service:

$ sudo systemctl status httpd

Install GParted on Linux Mint 20 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers methods to install GParted on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, GParted is an open-source GUI-based disk partition editor originally developed for Linux GNOME Desktop. It allows you to create, resize, copy and paste, move, and repair disk partitions using easy-to-use GUI. Also it supports many filesystems including btrfs, ext2/ext3/ext4, fat16/fat32, lvm2, ntfs and xfs, and a variety of storage devices such as SATA/IDE/SCSI, Flash memory, SSD and RAID.


How to Install Gparted on Debian, Ubuntu or Linux Mint ?

Gparted is part of the base repositories on Debian-based Linux, so apt-get will do the job:

$ sudo apt-get install gparted


GParted enables you to easily manage your disk partitions:

  • Create partition tables, (e.g., msdos or gpt).
  • Create, move, copy, resize, check, label, set new UUID, and delete partitions.
  • Enable and disable partition flags, (e.g., boot or hidden).
  • Align partitions to mebibyte (MiB) or traditional cylinder boundaries.
  • Attempt data rescue from lost partitions.

Install "exa" on Linux Mint 20 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install "exa" on your system and use it as a replacement for the "ls" command in Linux Mint 20. In fact, exa is a modern replacement for the venerable file-listing command-line program ls that ships with Unix and Linux operating systems, giving it more features and better defaults. It uses colours to distinguish file types and metadata. It knows about symlinks, extended attributes, and Git. And it’s small, fast, and just one single binary. Using this modern tool will simply allow you to visualize your files and directories in Linux in a much better way.

Install bpytop on Linux Mint 20 - Complete guide ?

This article covers how to install bpytop tool on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, BpyTop is a Linux command-line utility for resource monitoring. It shows usage and stats for processors, memory, disks, network, and processes. With this tool installed on your system, you can use it very efficiently for resource usage monitoring.

To check the version of Python running on your Linux distribution, type:

$ python3 --version

After installing Bpytop, you can start monitoring your Linux system resources by running the command below:

$ bpytop

Install Ruby on CentOS 8 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers steps to Install Ruby and run ruby applications on your centos 8 machine. In fact, Ruby is a dynamic, object-oriented programming language focused on simplicity and productivity. RVM (Ruby Version Manager) is a tool for installing and managing multiple Ruby versions on single operating systems. 


To Verify Active Ruby Version installed on your Linux system, run the below command:

$ ruby --version

Install Gparted on Ubuntu 20.04 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install the Gparted partition editor on Ubuntu 20.04 system. GParted is a free partition editor that permits you to manage your partitions graphically. GParted allows you to copy, resize and move partitions without losing data. 


Main features of  GParted includes:

  • Shrink or increase your C: drive
  • Make room for new operating systems to be installed.
  • Perform actions on partitions such as creating, deleting, resizing, and moving, checking, copying, pasting, and labeling.
  • Tries to recover data from deleted partitions.
  • You can also manipulate file systems such as: btrfsm, xfs, exfat, nilfs2, reiserfs / reiser4, lvm2 pv, hfs / hfs+, fat16 / fat32, ext2 / ext3 / ext4, ufs, udf, ntfs, linux-swap.


How To install GParted on Ubuntu ?

1. Open the terminal by pressing 'CTRL+ALT+T' or search it manually in the activities and update the packages list:

$ sudo apt update

2. Execute the following command to install GParted on your system:

$ sudo apt install gparted

Deploy Mattermost on Ubuntu 20.04 - A Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to deploy Mattermost on Ubuntu 20.04. Mattermost is an open source collaboration and messaging platform created with security and configurability in mind providing comparable functionality to Discord or Slack. It offers group, threaded and one-to-one messaging, unlimited search history and file sharing capabilities, two-factor authorization and notifications. Mattermost also provides webhooks and bot integration for further customization. It's accessible from every type of modern device due to its responsive web interface and dedicated mobile apps.

Now, you can easily connect with your team on Mattermost using a Desktop client. Even you can add multiple Mattermost servers to single desktop client and collaborate with different team users.

Install Timeshift on Debian 10 - Step by Step Procedure ?

This article covers how to install Timeshift on Debian 10 from its stable repositories. Timeshift brings the System Restore feature in Windows or the Time Machine tool in macOS to Linux.


How to Restore Ubuntu, Debian & Linux Mint from Snapshot using Timeshift ?

  • To revert your system to Snapshot state, select the Snapshot you want to restore to and click the "Restore" tab on the top menu.
  • This will ask you to "Select target device" and options for /boot and /home.
  • Timeshift will Perform Dry run before doing the actual restore.
  • Confirm Actions to initiate Snapshot restore process.
  • Timeshift will start to sync Snapshot files to the root filesystem.
  • The system should reboot after the process is completed.

Install Jupyter Notebook on Ubuntu 20.04 - A step by Step guide ?

This article covers how to install the Jupyter Notebook web application on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, Jupyter Notebook is easy to install and can be used to streamline numerical simulation, data transformation & cleaning, machine learning, and statistical modeling.

To install Pip, Python, and Python development, simply run the below command:

$ sudo apt-get -y install python3python-pip python-dev

The command above will install the most recent version of Python and Python Pip; a reliable Python package manager that makes it easy to manage the Python packages. In addition, Python Development will be installed.

Automatic Kernel Updates on Linux - How to Configure it ?

This article covers the procedure on how to set up automatic kernel updates on Linux. In fact, Applying security updates to the Linux kernel is a simple process that can be done with tools like apt, yum, or kexec. 

For organizations with more than a few servers, live patching is the best option. It is an automatic way to fix the Linux kernel while the server is running, making it more efficient and safer than manual methods.

How to Check Hardware Information on Ubuntu Graphically Using hardinfo

This article covers how to check the hardware information on your Linux system graphically using the hardinfo tool. In fact, a linux system is consists of different types of hardware such as processor, RAM, hard disk, network cards, etc. Linux provides various tools to check the details of these hardware parts. 

You can launch hardinfo tool from the terminal by using the below command:

$ hardinfo

Install Django on Alma Linux | Rocky Linux - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install Django on  Alma Linux | Rocky Linux. In fact, Django is the most popular Python web framework designed to help developers build secure, scalable, and maintainable web applications.


How to Install Python on Debian 10 Buster ?

1. Before we install any software, it's important to make sure your system is up to date by running the following apt commands in the terminal:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt upgrade

2. Install Python and necessary dependencies.

Now install Python dependencies on your system using the following command:

$ sudo apt install python3 python3-pip tree

3. Confirm the Python installation and check the Python version by typing the following command:

$ pip3 -V

Manage Linux File System on Ubuntu Linux Server

This article covers how to keep check and balance on your file system. Ext4 is the default file system on most Linux distributions for a reason. It's an improved version of the older Ext3 file system. It's not the most cutting-edge file system, but that's good: It means Ext4 is rock-solid and stable.

If you're setting up partitions on your main Linux boot drive, you'll also want to create a swap partition of at least a few GBs in size when setting up those partitions. This partition is used for "swap space". It's similar to the paging file on Windows. Linux swaps out memory to the swap space when its RAM is full. This partition must be formatted as "swap" instead of with a particular file system.

Install NetBeans on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the Installation process of NetBeans IDE on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, NetBeans is an IDE (Integrated Development Environment) application mainly used by developers to create applications using Java and other programming architectures like PHP and C++.


Features of NetBeans IDE includes:

  • A drag and drop GUI design tool for rapid UI development.
  • A feature-rich code editor with code templates & refactoring tools.
  • Integration tools such as GIT and mercurial.
  • Support for the latest Java technologies.
  • A rich set of community plugins.

Install VidCutter on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install VidCutter on a Linux Mint 20 machine. In fact, VidCutter is a cross-platform video cutting or trimmer software for Linux.


Features of VidCutter video editor:

  • Open source Software.
  • Cross-platform app available for Linux, Windows and MacOS.
  • Supports most of the common video formats such as: AVI, MP4, MPEG 1/2, WMV, MP3, MOV, 3GP, FLV etc.
  • Simple interface.
  • Trims and merges the videos.

Check Ubuntu Version from the Command Line

This article covers the different methods to check the Ubuntu Version by the terminal. While working with the system, we need to install multiple third-party software, which is available for version-specific. In that case, you need to find the Ubuntu version you are using.

The lsb-release is the standard package for reporting the version on Ubuntu systems. Which is basically written in the Python programming language. It provides lsb_release command-line tool to check Ubuntu version and other useful details.

Install Anaconda on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers step by step procedure for the installation of Anaconda on Ubuntu OS. In fact, Anaconda is designed to provide scientific libraries and dependencies in the Python programming language. It is a package manager used in scientific computing and data science.

Install CUDA on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install CUDA on Ubuntu 20.04.

To install CUDA on Ubuntu,  execute the following commands:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install nvidia-cuda-toolkit

To Check your CUDA version, run the below command:

$ nvcc --version

Install Inkscape on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers Inkscape is an open source cross-platform vector graphics editor for Linux, Windows and Mac OS X. Inkscape basically supports SVG file generation and editing and supports PNG, OpenDocument Drawing, DXF, sk1, PDF, EPS and PostScript export formats. It comes with Color selector, Color picker, gradient editor, Pattern fills, Dashed strokes and Path markers.


How to Install Inkscape vector graphics editor on Ubuntu ?

1. You can download and Inkscape from the ubuntu software center or install it from the command line by adding its PPA. To install Inkscape via command line, open the terminal app and type and enter the below command:

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:inkscape.dev/stable

2. Then run the below command to update your system:

$ sudo apt-get update

3. Now, run the below command to install Inkscape on Ubuntu:

$ sudo apt-get install inkscape

Install MariaDB on Rocky Linux 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers step-by-step installation procedure of the MariaDB server on Rocky Linux 8. In fact, MariaDB was developed as a "drop-in" replacement for MySQL. As such, both software packages are functionally equivalent and interchangeable.

To enable MariaDB service to start on boot time and start the service using the following commands:

$ sudo systemctl enable mariadb
$ sudo systemctl start mariadb

To verify the running status of MariaDB, run the below command:

$ sudo systemctl status mariadb

Install Cacti on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers step by step procedure for installing the Cacti monitoring tool on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. In fact, Cacti is a free and open-source RRD tool-based network monitoring tool that monitors network devices such as servers, routers, and switches. Cacti uses the SNMP protocol to gather data from remote systems. Data gathered is then stored in a MySQL database. 

One of the most essential tasks that any IT operation team has to keep in mind is continuous monitoring of their IT infrastructure. The concept of monitoring ensures that systems such as servers are functioning and working as desired.

Install Webmin on Rocky Linux 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers steps to Install and configure Webmin on Rocky Linux 8 using the automated installation script. Webmin web interface is used to set up user and disk management, Apache, DNS, PHP, MySQL, check CPU usage, system info, network config, and more.


How to Install Webmin using RPM package ?

It is also possible to install Webmin using the rpm package available on the download page of Webmin. This is the quickest way to get Webmin up and running on your Linux machine.

1. Install dependencies

Since Webmin is written in Perl, you need to install Perl and its dependencies:

$ sudo dnf install perl perl-Net-SSLeay perl-Data-Dumper perl-Encode-Detect

2. Download and Install Webmin RPM package

This will install the latest version of Webmin using the rpm package:

$ sudo dnf install https://www.webmin.com/download/rpm/webmin-current.rpm


How to uninstall Webmin ?

You can simply uninstall Webmin using the script /etc/webmin/uninstall.sh.

Restart Bluetooth in Ubuntu 20.04 - How to do it ?

This article covers methods to install, configure, enable and then restart the Bluetooth service in the Ubuntu system. From time to time when you are using Ubuntu Linux and you want to use your Bluetooth headset to watch Netflix or YouTube videos you may experience some problems with the Bluetooth connection on Linux.


How to fix the issue "Bluetooth isn't available" when you wake up the system ?

When you put your system to sleep, there are chances Bluetooth won’t be available when you wake it up. In order to make everything work fine as before in most cases you will need to restart the system.

In order to fix this issue, we need to launch the Terminal and check whether we have the 4.48 version of Bluez. You can easily do that with this command:

$ dpkg --status bluez | grep '^Version:'

When you see the results, use the following commands to update to the latest version:

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:bluetooth/bluez
$ sudo apt-get update

After these commands, you will be able to update the Buez using:

$ sudo apt upgrade


How to fix the issue "Bluetooth headset won't play in A2DP (High Fidelity)" ?

In order to fix this issue, you will need to make your system detect the right type of Bluetooth device by adding a simple configuration file.

1. First, let's check whether we have all the dependencies installed:

$ sudo apt install pulseaudio pulseaudio-utils pavucontrol pulseaudio-module-bluetooth

2. When we verify it, we need to create or edit this audio config file:

$ sudo gedit /etc/bluetooth/audio.conf

Then, Include the next lines:

This section contains general options
[General]
Enable=Source,Sink,Media,Socket

3. Finally, save the file and start the Bluetooth service again:

$ sudo service bluetooth restart

Install UTorrent in Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install uTorrent via the command line on Ubuntu 20.04 system. µTorrent provides clients for Windows and macOS X, however it is installed as a server in Ubuntu Linux and provides a web UI for managing downloads.

Check Link Speed in Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers different methods to determine the link speed of IP networks in Ubuntu. The link speed in a basic network refers to the maximum speed that a device can communicate with the wireless router. The link speed is expressed in bits/second and may vary depending on the device and the wireless access point.

Install Kubectl on Linux Mint 20 - Best Method ?

This article covers how you can install Kubectl on your Linux system and use it to operate your Kubernetes clusters if you are fond of using the command-line interfaces. Infact, Kubectl tool is very efficient in terms of cluster management and application deployment. 

Kubectl is a command-line tool for Kubernetes. It allows us to execute Kubernetes operations via the API. We can use Kubectl to deploy apps, check logs as well as manage all the other resources of the cluster.

Kubernetes uses an HTTP-based REST API which is the actual Kubernetes user interface employed to manage it. This means that every Kubernetes operation is represented as an API endpoint and can be carried out based on an HTTP-request sent to the endpoint. 

Install PHP 8.0 on Rocky Linux 8 - Best Procedure ?

This article covers steps to install PHP 8.0 in Rocky Linux. PHP is used to develop static or dynamic websites or web applications. Many popular CMS such as WordPress, Magento, and Joomla is written in PHP. Frameworks such as Laravel, Symfony, and CodeIgniter is also using PHP.

To list the available PHP version on your Linux terminal, run the command:

$ sudo dnf module list php

To verify PHP version, simply run the command:

$ php -v 

To install PHP packages and dependencies, run the command:

$ sudo apt install php php-cli php-fpm php-json php-common php-mysql php-zip php-gd php-mbstring php-curl php-xml php-pear php-bcmath


How to Install PHP 7.4 on Ubuntu ?

Installing PHP 7.4 on Ubuntu 19.04/18.04 is a bit different than 20.04. 1. To get started, update apt and add the required repositories:

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt -y install software-properties-common
$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ondrej/php
$ sudo apt-get update

2. And begin the install.

$ sudo apt install php7.4

3. After the install is complete, you can check the version that is installed and in use.

$ php -v

Install Laravel on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers steps to Install and Set up Laravel Application on your Ubuntu Linux System. Laravel is a widely used open-source PHP framework for web application development. The MVC (Model-View-Controller) architectural pattern is implemented in Laravel.


How to Install  and Manage Apache Web Server on Ubuntu?

1. Update all available repositories on your system and install the Apache webserver using the apt command below:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install apache2

2. Start the Apache service and add it to the system boot:

$ systemctl start apache2
$ systemctl enable apache2

3. Now check the Apache service status using the following command:

$ systemctl status apache2

Install AnyDesk on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step guide ?

This article covers how to install AnyDesk on your Linux system which can be used as a remote desktop application for interacting with different devices and controlling them remotely. Anydesk application can be installed on Windows, Linux and macOS.

Install the Brackets Code Editor on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Guide ?

This article covers how you can install Brackets code editor on Ubuntu OS via either the command line or the GUI. Brackets is a powerful text editor focused on web development and especially on the frontend.


Features of Brackets code editor:
  • Cross-platform: It has binaries for Windows, Linux, and macOS. This makes the transition to Linux easy if you come from another system.
  • Open Source: With an open code, you can examine it. And above all, you will not have license problems.
  • Support extensions: Supports many different extensions that help even more with the functionality of the program.
  • Preprocessor Support: Work with preprocessors (LESS and SCSS) in a whole new way.
  • Live Preview: Get a real-time connection to your browser.
  • Inline Editors: Instead of jumping between file tabs, Brackets lets you Open a window into the code you care about most.

Install Timeshift on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step Procedure ?

This article covers how to install Timeshift utility on Linux Mint system. Timeshift help in creating the backups of your precious data. Also,it is a fabulous tool that is used for the backup & restoration of the Linux operating system, it takes incremental backup after the first initial complete backup. TImeshit creates filesystem snapshots using Rsync or BTRFS. It has a nice GUI as well as support for CLI.

Install Tor Browser on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install and configure the latest Tor browser version on LinuxMint 20 system. In fact, now using the tor browser, you can browse privately and securely and visit all websites blocked by your ISP providers.


How to install Tor on Ubuntu 21.04 ?

1. We access the terminal in Ubuntu 21.04 and install Tor with the following command:

$ sudo apt install tor 

2. Install the browser itself with the following command:

$ sudo apt install torbrowser-launcher 


How to Remove Tor browser from Debian / Ubuntu / Linux Mint ?

If you are not happy with the Tor browser (installed via APT), you can remove it using the command below:

$ sudo apt purge torbrowser-launcher

If you installed it using Flatpak via software center, you can easily uninstall it from there. If you installed it from terminal, type in the following command:

$ flatpak uninstall com.github.micahflee.torbrowser-launcher

Rkhunter for Scanning Backdoors, Rootkits, and Local Exploits in Your Ubuntu Linux System - How to use it ?

This article covers an easy procedure to install rkhunter, configure, scan the system and view log to identify actual backdoor, rootkits, and local exploits. In fact, Rkhunter (Rootkit Hunter) is an open-source Unix/Linux based scanner tool for Linux systems released under GPL that scans backdoors, rootkits, and local exploits on your systems. It scans hidden files, wrong permissions set on binaries, suspicious strings in the kernel, and so on. 

To scan the entire Linux  file system, run the Rkhunter command as a root user:

$ rkhunter --check

Install PHP 8.0 on Debian / Linux Mint - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install PHP 8.0 on Debian 10. To verify the installed version of PHP, use the php command below:

$ php -v


How to install PHP 7.x extensions ?

The following syntax is used to install PHP 7.x extensions:

$ sudo apt-get install php7.x-extension

or

$ sudo apt-get install php-extension


To install the most commonly used PHP 7.x extensions by running the command in the terminal:

for PHP 7.4,

$ sudo apt-get install php7.4-mysql php7.4-mbstring php7.4-xml php7.4-bcmath php7.4-curl php7.4-gd php7.4-zip

for PHP 7.3,

$ sudo apt-get install php7.3-mysql php7.3-mbstring php7.3-xml php7.3-bcmath php7.3-curl php7.3-gd php7.3-zip

for PHP 7.2,

$ sudo apt-get install php7.2-mysql php7.2-mbstring php7.2-xml php7.2-bcmath php7.2-curl php7.2-gd php7.2-zip

for PHP 7.1,

$ sudo apt-get install php7.1-mysql php7.1-mbstring php7.1-xml php7.1-bcmath php7.1-curl php7.1-gd php7.1-zip

for PHP 7.0,

$ sudo apt-get install php7.0-mysql php7.0-mbstring php7.0-xml php7.0-bcmath php7.0-curl php7.0-gd php7.0-zip

Linux IP Command with Examples - An overview ?

This article covers the practical use cases of the Linux IP command. IP stands for Internet Protocol. IP command is used to show or manipulate routing, devices, and tunnels. It is similar to ifconfig command but it is much more powerful with more functions and facilities attached to it. It can perform several other tasks like configuring and modifying the default and static routing, setting up tunnel over IP, listing IP addresses and property information, modifying the status of the interface, assigning, deleting and setting up IP addresses and routes.


Linux system commands:

  • arp — Manipulate the system ARP cache.
  • ifconfig — View or modify the configuration of network interfaces.
  • netstat — Print information about network connections, routing tables, interface statistics, masquerade connections, and multicast memberships.
  • route — Display and manipulate the IP routing table.
  • tcpdump — Capture raw network traffic.

Install and Use Logwatch on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Guide ?

This article covers how to install and use Logwatch on Ubuntu Linux System. Logwatch is a system log analyzer and send that report to email. It generates a summarized log report which contains sshd - authentication failures, sudo - sessions opened, vsftp failures, postfix, failed logins, disk space and more. To find more information, visit the Logwatch man page.

Logwatch can be installed simply from the Ubuntu repository. First update the system.

$ sudo apt-get update

To install Logwatch, execute the command:

$ apt-get install logwatch

Install ROS Noetic on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install ROS Noetic on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. ROS (Robot Operating System) is an open-source project that provides a framework and tools for robotics applications. It helps to design complex software without knowing how certain hardware works.

Install Eclipse IDE on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how you can either use the direct download or the snap method to install Eclipse IDE on your Ubuntu system. Eclipse is a really powerful IDE that supports many programming languages. It provides numerous plugins and extensions for enhancing the functionality of your Eclipse such as source code version control (git, svn), class diagram generator, GUI builder.


How to install JRE (Java Runtime Environment) on your Ubuntu machine ?

In order to install JRE (Java Runtime Environment) on your Ubuntu machine, run the commands:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install openjdk-14-jre

To verify that Java was successfully installed, let's run:

$ java --version

Install Bluefish Editor on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the Installation process of Bluefish editor on Linux Mint. You can now use it for web development in a variety of different programming languages. 

Install TeamViewer on AlmaLinux 8 / Rocky Linux 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to easily install TeamViewer on AlmaLinux 8. With TeamViewer you can control computer systems running Linux, Windows and Mac OS remotely as if you were sitting right in front of that system. It also provides a spontaneous support to unattended computers such as servers.

Install and Configure Log with Graylog in Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers to install and configuren Graylog in ubuntu. With this, you can work with the log using the Graylog server. Graylog is an open-source tool that offers an integrated platform for collecting, indexing, and analyzing log data. The system essentially consists of the Graylog web interface, the Graylog servers, the Elasticsearch nodes, and a Mongo database.


How to Access Graylog Web interface ?

Open a browser on your local system or remote that can access the Ubuntu 20.04 server Ip-address. And type the http://your-server-ipaddress:9000

Replace your-server-ip-address with the actual IP address of your Server where Graylog has been installed.

Install Siege Benchmarking Tool on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install Siege benchmarking tool on Ubuntu Linux System using two methods: using the APT and the tar.gz package. Siege allows you to test a web server with n number of users t number of times. Siege offers three modes of operation: Regression, internet simulation, and brute force.

Once the Siege is installed, you can verify the installed version of Siege using the following command:

$ siege --version

Install Adobe Acrobat Reader in Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install and use Adobe acrobat reader to view PDF files on your Ubuntu 20.04 system.

Set Up OpenVPN on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers method to set up OpenVPN on Ubuntu 20.04. OpenVPN is a full featured, open-source Transport Layer Security (TLS) VPN solution that accommodates a wide range of configurations. OpenVPN is an open-source, fast, popular program for creating a VPN (Virtual Private Network). It uses both the TCP and UDP transmission protocols, and VPN tunnels are secured with OpenVPN protocol with SSL/TLS authentication, certificates, credentials, and optionally MAC address lock as well as multi-factor authentication.

Here, you will set up OpenVPN on an Ubuntu 20.04 server, and then configure it to be accessible from a client machine.

To confirm that the OpenVPN service is up and running by checking its status using the following systemctl command:

$ sudo systemctl status openvpn

Update Firmware on Ubuntu Using fwupd - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to update firmware on Ubuntu using fwupd. Fwupd aims to make firmware update on Linux systems automatic, safe, and reliable. It is mainly used to update UEFI firmware. There are many companies that already support native firmware updates such as Dell, Lenovo, HP, Intel, and System76. 


To Install fwupd on Ubuntu, run the following command:

$ sudo apt install fwupd

To download and apply all updates for your system use the update option:

$ fwupdmgr update

Use Netflix on Ubuntu 20.04 - Easy way to do it ?

This article covers how you can enjoy your TV shows and Movies using Netflix on Ubuntu 20.04. You can simply install Google Chrome and start watching Netflix without any additional tools and requirements.

Install Dropbox on Centos 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how you can install Dropbox on the CentOS system and sync your local files and folders with Dropbox cloud storage. Dropbox is a useful file-sharing and syncing service that lets you sync files between different machines over the Internet for free. It's very useful for backing up your important documents, pictures, MP3 files, video files, and other data.

Install Grafana on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install Grafana on Ubuntu OS using two methods: using the APT repository and the .deb package. Grafana is multi-platform open-source analytics and interactive visualization web application that integrates with complex data from sources like Prometheus, InfluxDB, Graphite, and ElasticSearch. It provides charts, graphs, and alerts for the web when connected to supported data sources. It is expandable through a plug-in system.


Features of Grafana:

  • Data Visualization: Allows for fast and flexible visualization with many options and settings.
  • Dynamic Dashboards: Provides the ability to create dynamic and reusable panels with templated variables.
  • Metrics Exploration: Explore your data with ad-hoc queries and dynamic drill-down by splitting the view and comparing different time ranges and sources.
  • Data Logs: Provides tremendous opportunities to use data metrics in a log with labels and filters saved, which can be studied, viewed, and broadcasted.
  • Extensive Alert Capabilities: Visually define alert rules for your most important metrics. Grafana will continuously evaluate and send notifications to systems such as Slack, PagerDuty, VictorOps, and OpsGenie.
  • Mixed Data Sources: Mix different data sources on the same graph and for each query.

Usermod Linux Command with Examples

This article covers different use cases of using the usermod command. The usermod command in Linux is used to manage user properties at command line. The syntax of the usermod command is following:

$ usermod [option] [argument] username

Top 6 Best, Free PDF Readers in Ubuntu / Debian Linux

This article covers the best PDF Viewers you can install on your Ubuntu / Debian Linux system. 

PDF viewer list on Ubuntu 20.04 Focal Fossa Linux:

  • Evince PDF Viewer.
  • Okular PDF Viewer.
  • Atril PDF Viewer.
  • Adobe Reader PDF Viewer.
  • Zathura PDF viewer.
  • GNU gv PDF Viewer.


Okular is a default PDF viewer on Ubuntu 20.04 KDE Plasma Desktop. To install Okular PDF Viewer, simply run the command:

$ sudo apt install okular

Rename Files and Directories in Ubuntu 20.04 - How to do it ?

This article covers different methods to Rename Files and Directories Using Linux Terminal. We can rename files and directories with rename and mv commands in the Linux Terminal. The mv command can only rename one file at a time, but the rename command can rename multiple files simultaneously.


How to Rename Files and Directories Using the mv Command ?

The mv command can rename files and directories. It is also used to move files and directories from one location to another.

Syntax of mv Command:

$ mv [OPTIONS] source destination

The source can be one or more files or directories, and the destination is always a single file or directory.

View and Delete Terminal History in Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to view / preserve or delete terminal history on Ubuntu Linux System. Terminal history can be a benefit in case you want to revisit/recall the past commands. But it can be a security risk because they can show system tools, configurations, and settings. 

The history mechanism in Ubuntu keeps track of terminal commands you executed.

To view your command line history, Open the Ubuntu terminal and Type :

$ history

This will display the list of previous bash commands you executed in the terminal.


To delete your Ubuntu terminal history, Type:

$ history -c

This will clear your Ubuntu terminal history. Also, you need to know that command line history is user independent, means every user has their own separate history. When you execute history -c command, it will only clear terminal history of the current user.

Modify My Desktop Background in Ubuntu 20.04 - Steps to do this ?

This article covers different methods to modify Ubuntu Desktop Background as well as updating your background by using the command prompt. When you first install and run Ubuntu Linux the first thing you see when you log in is the default desktop. It has the Ubuntu brown color scheme and panels at the top and bottom of the screen. There are two predominant desktop environments available with Linux - the GNOME desktop and the KDE desktop. Which is the best desktop is matter of preference and heated disagreement in the Linux community. Both are excellent, feature rich desktops.


How to Change the desktop background in Ubuntu ?

To change the image used for your backgrounds:

1. Open the Activities overview and start typing Background.

2. Click Background to open the panel. The currently selected wallpaper is shown at the top.

3. There are two ways to change the image used for your backgrounds:

i. Click one of the background images which are shipped with the system.

Some wallpapers change throughout the day. These wallpapers have a small clock icon in the bottom-right corner.

ii. Click Add Picture… to use one of your own photos. By default, the Pictures folder will be opened, since most photo management applications store photos there.

4. The settings are applied immediately.

For another way to set one of your own photos as the background, right-click on the image file in Files and select Set as Wallpaper, or open the image file in Image Viewer, click the menu button in the titlebar and select Set as Wallpaper.

5. Switch to an empty workspace to view your entire desktop.

Install LAMP Stack on Rocky Linux 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install LAMP stack on Rocky Linux 8.4. You can now proceed to test or host your website and applications. A LAMP stack is a group of open-source software that is typically installed together to enable a server to host dynamic websites and web apps. This term is actually an acronym which represents the Linux operating system, with the Apache web server. The site data is stored in a MySQL database, and dynamic content is processed by PHP.


How to Install  and configure Apache Web Server ?

1. First, we will start by installing the Apache web server. To complete the installation, use the following command:

$ yum install httpd httpd-tools

2. Once the installation is complete, enable Apache (to start automatically upon system boot), start the web server and verify the status using the commands below:

$ systemctl enable httpd
$ systemctl start httpd
$ systemctl status httpd

3. To make your pages available to public, you will have to edit your firewall rules to allow HTTP and HTTPS requests on your web server by using the following commands:

$ firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-service=http 
$ firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-service=https 
$ firewall-cmd --reload
4. Verify that the web server is running and accessible by accessing your server’s IP address:
$ echo "Hello there, Apache webserver is now running" > /var/www/html/index.html

5. And restart tht Web Server to reflect the changes made:

$ systemctl restart httpd

From your browser,

http://IP_address


How to Install PHP on CentOS ?

1. To install PHP on your RHEL 8 use the command below:

$ yum install -y php-mysqlnd php-dom php-simplexml php-xml php-xmlreader php-curl php-exif php-ftp php-gd php-iconv  php-json php-mbstring php-posix php-sockets php-tokenizer

2. Now restart your web server so that Apache knows that it will be serving PHP requests as well:

$ systemctl restart httpd

Install OpenLiteSpeed Webserver on Ubuntu 20.04 - Easy method ?

This article covers how to install and configure OpenLiteSpeed webserver. OpenLiteSpeed is an easy-to-use, open-source web server. It offers unbeatable features and performance to your sites along with top-notch security. Also, it understands all the apache rewrite rules and has intelligent cache acceleration features that let you implement the fastest caching on your server. Apart from all these, you get to install a customized PHP processor that is optimized for the OpenLiteSpeed server.


OpenLiteSpeed server's Frontend (default page) is located at:

http://<your-server-public-IP>:8088

It's backend (admin console) is located at:

https://<your-server-public-IP>:7080

Install bashtop on Linux Mint 20 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install the "bashtop" utility on your Linux Mint 20 system. Bashtop is a command-line based resource monitor written in bash, which depicts usage and statistics for the CPU processor(s), RAM, hard disks, network sources, and other running processes. It also contains a customizable menu and a fully responsive terminal user interface. 

Now, you will be able to use this utility for monitoring the resource usage statistics on your system. 


To Run or start Bashtop application, run one of the following commands.

# bashtop
# bpytop

Install Gitea on Linux Mint 20 - Best Method ?

This article covers the installation procedure of Gitea on a Linux Mint 20 system. With Gitea, you can track time, issues, repository branching, file locking, merging, etc.

Install the Brackets Code Editor on Linux Mint 20 - Best Method ?

This article covers the process of installing Brackets on a Linux Mint 20 system. Once this code editor is installed on your system, you can conveniently use it for professional-level frontend development. 

Brackets is a modern open-source code editor for HTML, CSS and JavaScript that’s built-in HTML, CSS and JavaScript. It has two great features: quick edit and live preview. It was created for front end developers and designers and has a very attractive interface. Brackets is developed by Adobe and is focused on web designers and front-end developers.


To Install Brackets Code Editor on Ubuntu:

1. make sure that all your system packages are up-to-date by running these following apt commands in the terminal.

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt upgrade

2. Install Brackets Code Editor.

$ sudo snap install brackets --classic

Disable SELinux on CentOS 7 - How to do it ?

This article covers method to permanently disable SELinux on CentOS 7. SELinux, also known as Security-Enhanced Linux, is a security feature embedded in the Linux kernel. SELinux leverages Mandatory Access controls (MAC) to confine users to certain rules and policies and prevents them from performing unauthorized tasks on the Linux system as specified by the IT administrator

To Check SELinux status, simply run the command:

# sestatus

Install Minikube on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install Minikube on your Ubuntu 20.04 machine. Minikube is an open source tool that allows you to set up a single-node Kubernetes cluster on your local machine. The cluster is run inside a virtual machine and includes Docker, allowing you to run containers inside the node. 

Now, you can use the single-node Kubernetes with minikube to learn one of the most famous containers orchestration tools in the Cloud Native era. 


To enable and access kubernetes dashboard , run the command:

$ minikube dashboard

This will open the Kubernetes dashboard in the web browser.


To stop the minikube, run:

$ minikube stop

To delete the minikube, run:

$ minikube delete

To Start the minikube, run:

$ minikube start

Use tcpdump Command in Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to use the tcpdump command for troubleshooting and analyzing the network on your Linux system. tcpdump is the world's premier network analysis tool—combining both power and simplicity into a single command-line interface.

Basically, tcpdump is a valuable tool for anyone looking to get into networking or information security.

The raw way it interfaces with traffic, combined with the precision it offers in inspecting packets make it the best possible tool for learning TCP/IP.

Protocol Analyzers like Wireshark are great, but if you want to truly master packet-fu, you must become one with tcpdump first.

Install Gitea on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install Gitea on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. Gitea is a self-facilitated open-source git worker written in Go. It is a fork of Gogs . Gitea incorporates a store record supervisor, venture issue following, clients administrations, notices, implicit wiki, and considerably more. 

To Install Git on Linux, run the commands: 

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install git

To Confirm Git Installation, execute the command: 

$ git --version

Install Puppet on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers the installation of a puppet server on both master and client nodes and how to connect them. Ensure that you sign the puppet agent node certificate for both the master and client-side.

Puppet is a free and open-source automated administrative engine for Linux, Unix, and Windows operating systems. It is used for deploying, configuring, and managing servers and performs administrative tasks such as adding users, installing packages, and many more. It helps system admins to free up time and mental space by automating tasks on thousands of physical and virtual machines. It uses a client-server model. Where Puppet master controls configuration information for Puppet agents while Puppet agents talk to and pull down configuration profiles from the Puppet master.

Install and Configure Monit Monitoring Server on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Best Method ?

This article covers how to Install Monit monitoring server on the Ubuntu 20.04 system. Monit is an open-source utility used to supervise the processes and restart the services which are configured for it and have failed. Monit supervises the processes and restarts them on failure detection. Apart from the processes, Monit can also be used to monitor CPU, RAM, Disk, File Size and trigger alerts on out-of-bound values. It also shows how to trigger alert emails using custom templates. 

Now you can easily monitor your system using this lightweight tool.


To Install Monit on Ubuntu, run the following commands:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install monit

Clear Apt Cache on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers the best method of listing and cleaning the apt cache on your Ubuntu system. Ubuntu users can clean Apt archive cache using sudo apt-get clean and sudo apt-get autoclean commands. The apt-get is a APT package handling utility or the command-line tool for handling packages. These commands clears out the local repository. The autoclean command only removes packages and files that are no longer in use. Ubuntu users can also do the same task from Synaptic package manager. Open Synaptic, go to Settings > Preferences > File tab. Select to delete packages that are no longer in use.

To clean Apt archive cache folder on Ubuntu, run:

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get clean
$ sudo apt-get autoclean


  • clean – clean clears out the local repository of retrieved package files. It removes everything but the lock file from /var/cache/apt/archives/ and /var/cache/apt/archives/partial/.
  • autoclean – Like clean, autoclean clears out the local repository of retrieved package files. The difference is that it only removes package files that can no longer be downloaded, and are largely useless. This allows a cache to be maintained over a long period without it growing out of control. The configuration option APT::Clean-Installed will prevent installed packages from being erased if it is set to off.

Install VNC Server on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install and configure VNC Server on Ubuntu 20.04. Virtual Network Computing, or VNC, is a connection system that allows you to use your keyboard and mouse to interact with a graphical desktop environment on a remote server. It makes managing files, software, and settings on a remote server easier for users who are not yet comfortable with the command line.

After connecting to your server with SSH, update your list of packages:

$ sudo apt update

Now install Xfce along with the xfce4-goodies package, which contains a few enhancements for the desktop environment:

$ sudo apt install xfce4 xfce4-goodies

Once that installation completes, install the TightVNC server:

$ sudo apt install tightvncserver

Install Swift on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install Swift on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. Swift is a programming language developed from C and objective-C which uses variables to store and refer to values. Constants are used throughout.

Install qbittorrent on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers the process of Installing qBittorrent on Ubuntu 20.04. For more information, visit their official site https://www.qbittorrent.org.


Main feautures of qBittorrent:

  • An interface similar to uTorrent
  • DHT, peer exchange, and complete encryption are all supported by this BitTorrent client.
  • It has a well-integrated search engine.
  • It also has UPnP port forwarding and NAT-PMP capabilities.
  • You can also use the qBittorrent Web interface to control it remotely.
  • A search engine that is well-integrated and expandable.
  • IPv6 compliant.

Install and Configure JFrog Artifactory on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to Install JFrog Artifactory on Ubuntu. JFrog Artifactory is the world’s most advanced repository manager designed to integrate with the majority of continuous integration and delivery tools. With JFrog Artifactory, delivering an end to end automated solution with artifacts tracking from development to production becomes a reality.

Jfrog provides you with an interactive, responsive user interface. It has more features than other artifactory management tools. For more information please visit the official site of JFrog. https://jfrog.com/open-source

Install GIMP on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers the different methods to install GIMP on Ubuntu 20.04 system. Also, we have also elaborated on how to launch and remove GIMP from the system. With GIMP, you can perform almost any image editing task, from the simplest task to the most complex image manipulation technique.  Gimp can be used for photo retouching, image composition, and image authoring.


How to remove GIMP on Debian / Ubuntu ?

To completely remove the GIMP package from your system, run the following command:

$ sudo apt purge gimp
$ sudo apt clean

Next, remove the ~/.gimp directory in your home directory to get rid of the profile settings.

Install Emacs Editor in Linux Mint 20 - Best Method ?

This article covers how you can install and uninstall the Emacs editor via different ways. Emacs is a free, open source, extensible and customizable text editor. It is multiplatform and we will find it available for Gnu / Linux, Windows and Mac.

10 Best Ways to Secure Your SSH Server

This article covers methods of hardening SSH servers that help to avoid different security risks. With the advancements in technology, many business processes we carry out today heavily relies on the internet, online tools and connected devices. That is why taking the necessary precautions to ensure the network security has utmost importance. If an organization fails to secure their network, they are open to cyber attacks which can result in data breaches, losing digital assets, losing business and even going out of business.


How to secure SSH ?

If you want to make sure that your SSH server is impenetrable and secure, you should follow the steps below:

  • Set a custom SSH port. By default, SSH is set to be listening on port 22. Unfortunately, almost all cyber attackers know that. That is why changing it to something random like Port 821 offers an additional layer of security by obscurity.
  • Employ TCP wrappers. TCP Wrappers offer a host-based ACL protection that will allow you to sort out and filter who is able to access the SSH server.
  • Disable root login. Another default setting of the SSH server is that it allows root login on Unix and Linux operating systems. Since this feature can easily be exploited by the cyber attackers, we advise you to disable it.
  • Disable empty passwords. Again, in Unix and Linux operating systems, SSH server allows the users to create empty passwords which practically mean keeping the door open for intruders. Make sure that no user opts for an empty password by disabling the option.
  • Block SSH brute force attacks. In order to do so, you can opt for manually going through the system logs, detect the intruders and block them by using the firewall. Another (and much easier) method is using tools like Fail2ban, SSHGuard and such.

Mount a Drive on Linux - Best Method ?

This article covers the process of Mounting and unmounting a drive or an ISO image in Linux. After creating disk partitions and formatting them properly, you may want to mount or unmount your drives.

On Linux, mounting drives is done via mountpoints on the virtual filesystem, allowing system users to navigate the filesystem as well as create and delete files on them.


How to List Mounted File Systems and Linux Drives ?

To display all currently attached file systems we will type:

$ mount

By default, the output will include all of the file systems including the virtual ones such as cgroup, sysfs, and others. Each line contains information about the device name, the directory to which the device is mounted, the filesystem type and the mount options.


How to install NFS client on Ubuntu and Debian ?

NFS stands for Network File System. To mount an NFS share you'll need to have the NFS client package installed on your Linux system.

1. To install NFS client on Ubuntu and Debian, type:

$ sudo apt install nfs-common

2. To install NFS client on CentOS and Fedora:

$ sudo yum install nfs-utils

Run Shell Script as Systemd Service in Linux

This article covers how to run your own shell script as a systemd service. Basically, Systemd is a software application that provides an array of system components for Linux operating systems. It is the first service to initialize the boot sequence. This always runs with pid 1. This also helps use to manage system and application service on our Linux operating system.


How to Enable New Service in Linux?

1. To reload the systemctl daemon to read new file, execute:

$ sudo systemctl daemon-reload 

2. To enable the service to start on system boot, also start the service using the following commands:

$ sudo systemctl enable shellscript.service 
$ sudo systemctl start shellscript.service 

3. To verify the script is up and running as a systemd service:

$ sudo systemctl status shellscript.service

Top 6 Free and Open-Source Alarm Clocks

This article covers the best clock applications that work most efficiently on the Linux platforms and their distributions and are absolutely free, open-source, and reliable.

Alarms are one of the most required utilities in these times. It would not be wrong to say that if there are no alarms, suddenly there will be a giant halt to productivity. Many information technology firms and software solutions developers have proposed high-functioning clock platforms that not only offer a sleek, simple, and easy clock utility but also offer amazing and most efficient alarm features along with a list of other vast features enhancing overall user experience. 

Install Duplicity on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers the process to install duplicity on Ubuntu 20.04 and how to use it. Duplicity is an open-source tool that helps people create backups of their data. It basically just encrypts the user's data and stores it into a remote server. It's a very convenient and smart way to back up data, as it does not only store the data but also any changes made to it in the long run. This attribute makes Duplicity very space-efficient.


To Install Duplicity on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS,

1. Update the Package Repository:

$ sudo apt-get update -y

2. After updating the repository, consider running the following command to install duplicity:

$ sudo apt-get install -y duplicity

3. Verify the Installation:

$ apt-cache policy duplicity

Install KDevelop in Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers How to Install kdevelop in Ubuntu Linux System. KDevelop is a robust IDE that includes useful extensions, and also several high-quality features. KDevelop is a great option of IDE for Linux distributions due because of its stability and security.

To Install kdevelop software package in Ubuntu, run the following command:

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install kdevelop

Install and Run Jenkins with Systemd and Docker on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to Run Jenkins Server in Docker Container with Systemd. Jenkins is an opensource automation server that is designed to help software developers build, test and deploy applications and thereby streamline the continuous integration and delivery process. 

To create a system group for Jenkins, run the command:

$ sudo groupadd --system jenkins

Then create Jenkins system user:

$ sudo useradd -s /sbin/nologin --system -g jenkins jenkins

And finally add Jenkins user to docker group as shown:

$ sudo usermod -aG docker jenkins

To confirm that Jenkins user is added to the docker group, run the id command as shown:

$ id jenkins

Change SSH Port on Ubuntu 20.04 Linux System - Best Method ?

This article covers how to change the ssh port on Ubuntu Linux server. You can easily change the SSH Port for Your Linux server. For better security, consider using SSH passwordless authentication with SSH public/private key pair.

The ssh port defined in sshd_config file. This file located in /etc/ssh/sshd_config location.

To open the new port run the following commands on Fedora/CentOS/RHEL/Oracle Linux using FirewallD:

$ sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-port=2222/tcp
$ sudo firewall-cmd --reload


How to Restart the sshd service ?

Type the following command on a CentOS/RHEL/Fedora Linux:

$ sudo service sshd restart

OR if you are using CentOS/RHEL/Fedora Linux with systemd:

$ sudo systemctl restart sshd

OR if you are using Ubuntu/Debian/Mint Linux:

$ sudo service ssh restart

OR if you are using Ubuntu/Debian/Mint Linux with systemd:

$ sudo systemctl restart ssh

Or if you are using FreeBSD Unix, enter:

$ sudo service sshd restart

Install Bluefish Editor on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers method to Install bluefish editor on Ubuntu 20.04 system. Bluefish is a text editor. It is used to write code in various programming languages like: C, C++, JAVA, Python, HTML etc.

It is cross-platform, lightweight and easy to learn. It provides many features of IDE to support development and designing of applications.


To Install Bluefish on Ubuntu:

1. Add PPA (Personal Package Archive)

Use the following command to add PPA in our system:

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:klaus-vormweg/bluefish  

2. Update Repository

Use this command to update our local repository:

$ apt-get update  

3. Install Bluefish

After updating, now, use this command to install bluefish:

$ sudo apt-get install bluefish

4. Run Bluefish

Now, we can run bluefish either by using terminal or from the application manager.

Execute this command to open bluefish editor:

$ bluefish  

Install Brave Browser on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers different methods of installation of brave browser software on Ubuntu. 


Main features of Brave web browser:

  • Search – Choose default search engine – Google, Bing, Yahoo, DuckDuckGo e.t.c.
  • Fast Browsing – According to its creators, Brave loads pages three times as fast out of the box with nothing to install, learn or manage.
  • Easy to switch to Brave – It's easy to import your settings from your old browser. You can do it during the welcome tour or later through the menus.
  • Support your favorite sites with Brave Rewards – with Brave Rewards activated, you can support the content creators you love at the amount that works for you.
  • Privacy and Security – Brave fights malware and prevents tracking, keeping your information safe and secure. Clearing of browsing data and a built-in password manager.
  • Form autofill which saves you time when working with forms.
  • Extensions/Plugins – Brave Desktop now supports most of the Chrome extensions in the chrome web store.

Install Harbor Image Registry on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install harbor on Ubuntu. The process is the same for all the other distribution of Linux. Harbor is a component of vSphere with Kubernetes. Harbor provides an enterprise-class registry service. 

Harbor is deployed in a dedicated system namespace on the Supervisor Cluster and is composed of several vSphere Pods. 

Image registries provide a centralized repository for an organization to store container images. 

Public image registries can be used to store container images. However, for security reasons, it is better to use an on-premises image registry. 

You use an on-premises image registry for the following purposes: 

Store container images securely. 

Control access to container images. 

vSphere with Kubernetes is integrated with Harbor and is also compatible with other container image registries. 


Harbor key features includes:

  • Security and vulnerability analysis.
  • Content signing and validation.
  • Extensible API and web UI.
  • Image replication.
  • Role-based access control.
  • Multitenant.


After Harbor installation has succeeded, access Harbor web console on https://registry_domain.

Then Login with:

  • Username: admin
  • Password: Set-in-harbor.yml

Define and Use Handlers in Ansible Playbooks

This article covers Ansible features which you can use to write playbooks for server automation. Basically, Handlers are just like normal tasks in an Ansible playbook but they run only when if the Task contains a "notify" directive. It also indicates that it changed something. handlers will perform an action when listens for a notify event. If nothing notifies a handler, it will not run. Regardless of how many tasks notify a handler, it will run only once, after all of the tasks completed in a particular play. 

Download a File on Ubuntu Using the Command Line on Ubuntu 20.04 system

This article covers Both wget and curl which are the free and open-source command-line utilities used for the non-interactive downloading of files. Remember, although both the utilities can download files from the web; they do differ a lot in terms of functionalities.

url can be used to transfer data over a number of protocols. It supports many protocols including HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, TFTP, TELNET, SCP, etc. using Curl, you can download any remote files. It supports pause and resumes functions as well.

To Install curl,

Launch command line application in Ubuntu that is Terminal by pressing the Ctrl+Alt+T key combinations. Then enter the below command to install curl with sudo:

$ sudo apt install curl

Check Your Laptop's Battery Status on Linux Mint 20

This article covers the different methods to check your battery health monthly to keep its charging cycle and usage optimized. For this purpose, you can use the "acpi" command.

The acpi command shows battery status and other ACPI information in your Linux distribution.

You might need to install acpi command in some Linux distributions.

On Arch Linux and its derivatives:

$ sudo pacman -S acpi

To install acpi on Debian, Ubuntu and its derivatives:

$ sudo apt-get install acpi

On RHEL, CentOS, Fedora:

$ sudo yum install acpi

Or,

$ sudo dnf install acpi

Once acpi installed, run the following command:

$ acpi -V

Install Django on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers the different methods of Installing Django on Ubuntu 20.04. With it, you can easily perform creation of Django applications, superuser creation, and removal of Django. 

Django is a full-featured Python web framework for developing dynamic websites and applications. Using Django, you can quickly create Python web applications and rely on the framework to do a good deal of the heavy lifting.


How to install Django from Ubuntu repositories ?

1. First, update your local package index with apt:

$ sudo apt update

2. Next, check which version of Python you have installed. 18.04 ships with Python 3.6 by default, which you can verify by typing:

$ python3 -V

Install Emacs Editor in Debian 10 - Best Method ?

This article covers the different methods to install Emacs on Debian OS. Emacs is a widely used open-source text editor for Linux. It exists for many years now and can be used for basic word processing, code editing, and scripting, etc.


How to Install Emacs editor on Debian ?

1. To start the installation process, login with root and update the package repository with the following command.

$ apt-get update

2. Next, run the following command on the terminal and wait for the operation to complete. This can take several minutes. When you are asked for confirmation, press Y from your keyboard.

$ apt-get install emacs

Install Notepadqq on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install notepadqq on Ubuntu 20.04 Linux system. Notepad is a similar copy of the most popular editor notepad++. Basically, Notepadqq is a text editor that is designed by developers for the developers. It supports more than 100 languages and useful to note down daily tasks.


How to Install Notepadqq on Debian / Ubuntu?

1. Add Repository

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:notepadqq-team/notepadqq  

2. Update Repository

$ sudo apt-get update  

3. Install Notepadqq

$ sudo apt-get install notepadqq  

4. After installation, we can access it either via terminal by typing notepadqq or by searching from the application manager. Run Notepadqq:

$ notepadqq 

Best Photo Editors for Linux

This article covers the best photo editors for Linux users. If you are using a Linux operation system and looking for an efficient Linux photo editor that is not better than Lightroom or Photoshop, you may face some problems. With these software, you can perform basic and professional adjustments, retouch and organize your images, make color and lighting correction, manipulate size, converse or share the files.


Top Best Linux Photo Editors

Install Elasticsearch on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install elasticsearch in the stable version of Ubuntu 20.04. Now you can use the hosted elasticsearch server for doing searches.

If your application generates a huge amount of data and the search procedures are slow, then using elasticsearch will be best.

Install Kazam Screen Recording Tool on Ubuntu 20.04

This article covers the installation of Kazam on the Ubuntu system using the Sylvain Pineau PPA. Also, we also covered how to uninstall Kazam if for any reason you need to do that. Kazam is a simple screen recording program that captures the screencasts, screenshots, and records video files. Kazam records desktop video and multiple audio streams simultaneously with control over audio levels and the screen region being captured. 


Kazam keyboard shortcuts in Ubuntu:

  • Super+Ctrl+R: Start recording.
  • Super+Ctrl+P: Pause recording, press again for resuming the recording (The most important shortcut).
  • Super+Ctrl+F: Finish recording.
  • Super+Ctrl+Q: Quit recording.

Install Putty on CentOS 8 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to Install putty on CentOS 8. With putty, you can easily connect your Linux system to a remote system. Putty is a free and open source ssh & telnet client. Putty is available for Windows, Linux, Unix and macOS. Using putty, we can access the remote servers and switches over ssh protocol. It can also be used to take serial console of remote systems.


How to perform Putty Installation on CentOS / RHEL / Fedora ?

Putty package is available in the default CentOS and RHEL repositories. So, to install putty run:

$ sudo yum install putty -y

Or

$ sudo dnfs install putty -y

Install Nmap on CentOS 8 - Best Method ?

This article covers methods to install Nmap on your CentOS machine. Nmap is a handy utility for network scanning and security auditing. Nmap contains variety of options for scanning remote hosts. Have a look at the 15 Mostly Used Nmap Commands for Scanning Remote Hosts.



How to Install Nmap on Debian / Ubuntu ?

1. Install Nmap on Ubuntu by entering the following command:

$ sudo apt-get install nmap

2. The system prompts you to confirm the installation by typing y.

3. After the installation is finished, verify the installed version of Nmap by entering:

$ nmap –version

Install Go on CentOS 8 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install Go on CentOS 8. Go language was designed to resolve the common criticisms of other languages while maintaining their positive characteristics and most widely used for writing servers these days.


Run the below command to see the version of the Go language:

$ go version

Install GitLab in Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install GitLab on your local devices or server. Also, you will learn how to integrate the GitLab CE into our local Ubuntu system. GitLab CE, or Community Edition, is an open-source application primarily used to host Git repositories, with additional development-related features like issue tracking. It is designed to be hosted using your own infrastructure, and provides flexibility in deploying as an internal repository store for your development team, a public way to interface with users, or a means for contributors to host their own projects.

Install Anydesk on CentOS 8 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install the AnyDesk application on CentOS 8 system using the command-line approach. Once you've installed AnyDesk on CentOS 8 / RHEL 8, you’ll be able to access your Linux system from Windows, Mac, and other Linux based systems. You'll enjoy its simple and user-friendly set up and administration tools which enables you to easily manage remote system.

Install Gradle on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers the installation of Gradle on the Ubuntu system using different ways. Gradle is a free and open-source build tool primarily used for Java projects. Gradle helps you to automate, build and deliver software efficiently. Gradle uses Groovy object-oriented programming language instead of XML to define the project configurations. Gradle also supports many popular IDE platforms, such as Android Studio, Eclipse, IDEA, and NetBeans.


How to Install Java on Linux ?

Gradle needs Java to be installed on your system. You can install the latest version of Java by running the following command:

$ apt-get install default-jdk -y 

After installing Java, you can verify the Java with the following command:

$ java -version

Check CPU Temperature Using lm-Sensors and hddtemp

This article covers how you can monitor the temperature of your CPU cores, hard drive and other components attached to the motherboard.

When your PC is overheating, consider disassembling your PC and blowing it with a blower to get rid of all the dust which might be blocking the ventilation vents.

Also, ensure your laptop is placed on a hard surface and not on a cushy surface such as on a bed where the vents can easily get blocked.

Lastly, enable power saving mode and close any unnecessary applications.

Install and Use Vim Editor in Linux - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install vim, followed by some basics on using vim and then uninstalling it. Vim (Vi IMproved) is a text editor that is upwards compatible to Vi. It can be used to edit all kinds of plain text. It is especially useful for editing config files and programs written in shell, python, perl, c/c++ and more. 

Among the various text editors in the world of Linux, Vim (or Vi IMproved) stands out for its versatility and for the functions it offers. In fact, Vim is able to speed up code writing, providing some shortcuts to perform all the operations of modification, deletion or replacement of the text. 

Vim Text Editor also allows you to install different plugins through which transforming this simple text editor into a real IDE for programming in different languages.


How to Install vim using apt on Linux ?

1. Open terminal application. You can also press CTRL+ALT+T keyboard shortcut.

2. Update package database by typing the sudo apt update command.

3. Search for vim packages run: sudo apt search vim.

4. Install vim on Ubuntu Linux, type: sudo apt install vim.

5. Verify vim installation by typing the vim --version command.

Set Up UFW Firewall on Ubuntu 18.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to set up UFW on Ubuntu 18.04 system. It advised to deny all the incoming connections except necessary ports. Uncomplicated Firewall or UFW is an interface to iptables that is designed to simplify the process of configuring a firewall. While iptables is a firm and flexible tool, it can be sometimes tricky for beginners to learn how to use it to properly configure a firewall. If a user is looking to get started securing his or her network, UFW may be the appropriate solution.


UFW is installed on Ubuntu by default. If it has been uninstalled for some reason, we can install it with the following command:

$ sudo apt install ufw

By default, UFW denies all incoming connections and allows all outgoing connections. It means that a client trying to reach our server would not be able to connect. When an application from our server tries to connect any other server outside, it will be allowed. The following commands serve the purpose:

$ sudo ufw default deny incoming
$ sudo ufw default allow outgoing

Modify User Password in Linux - Best method ?

This article covers how to change own and another user account passwords. It's recommended that to change your password frequently and use a unique password for each account for security purpose. Basically, you will learn how to change a password on any Linux distribution, including Ubuntu, Debian, and CentOs.

To change a password on behalf of a user, first sign on or "su" to the "root" account. Then type, ``passwd user'' (where user is the username for the password you are changing). The system will prompt you to enter a password. Passwords do not echo to the screen when you enter them.

You can also change your own password, by typing ``passwd'' (without specifying a username). You will be prompted to enter your old password for verification, and then a new password.


How to Change a Password in Linux?

To change the password in Linux you need to open the terminal and type the following command:

$ sudo passwd

After executing the command, you will be asked to enter the new password twice. 

Install Kdenlive on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to Install Kdenlive video editor on a Linux Mint 20 system. Now you can use it very conveniently for producing professional quality edited videos. Kdenlive is a free and opensource video editing software, it is built on Qt and  KDE Framework libraries, and MLT Framework is used for video processing in Kdenlive and this is part of the official KDE project.


How to Install Kdenlive 20.04 in Ubuntu 20.04 / LinuxMint /Elementary OS ?

1. Add the official PPA

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:kdenlive/kdenlive-stable

2. Update the apt repository

$ sudo apt update

3. Install Kdenlive 20.04

$ sudo apt install kdenlive

Install Zoom on CentOS 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how you can install Zoom on CentOS machine using two different methods i.e via RPM and via snap. The Zoom Client can be installed on Windows, Mac, Linux, iOS, Android, and H.323/SIP room systems.


How to Install Zoom Client on CentOS 8 / Fedora 33/32/31/30 ?

An RPM package is provided on the Downloads page for installation on CentOS / RHEL and Fedora System.

1. Download the latest release of Zoom Client:

$ sudo yum -y install wget
$ wget https://zoom.us/client/latest/zoom_x86_64.rpm

2. Then install Zoom Client on CentOS 8 Linux with yum command:

$ sudo yum localinstall zoom_x86_64.rpm

Hit the y key to start the installation.

The dependencies required and Zoom Client will be installed on CentOS 8.

3. You can check the version of Zoom Client installed on CentOS 8 / Fedora Desktop with the rpm command:

$ rpm -qi zoom 

Top 5 Best Open-Source Screen Recorders for Linux

This article covers the screen recording tools that are the best performing and yield the most optimal outcomes for Linux users. Cross-platform compatible screen recorders are discussed as well such as OBS Studio and Freeseer whereas Kazam, recordMyDesktop, and Simple Screen Recorder are especially and specifically designed to enhance the user experience of Linux users. Still, each discussed screen recording tool is most acclaimed and best-reviewed by Linux users and hence ensures a seamless user experience.

Screen recording is a need for every paradigm, from businesses to school management to chefs cooking meals in the restaurants and kitchens, everyone requires or wants to create tutorials. To create these tutorials, screen recording tools often pose different challenges and issues.

All of these open-source software tools for Linux let you record video of what's happening on your screen, and some let you live-stream it to YouTube or Facebook Live as well.

Top 5 Best Development Environments for Linux

This article covers the best Integrated Development Environments (IDEs) that despite providing a coding environment, also provide assistance and support along with speed and efficiency to enhance the software developers’ overall coding experience. PhpStorm, Eclipse, BlueFish, VSCode, and Sublime Text – all IDEs are part of our list of top-performing IDEs. Each IDE is cross-platform compatible thereby enabling software developers across all the platforms, i.e. Windows, macOS, and Linux, and making development easy, efficient and equal for all.

Basically, Developing software solutions is a need and demand of many users, companies, and enterprises across the globe. In this advanced world of information technology, it has almost become impossible to expect advancements and improvements or even sustenance without relying on a software solution.

Top 5 Best Time Tracking Software for Linux

This article covers the top and best functioning time tracking tools capable of tracking, managing, and providing insights such as reporting, on different tasks the users or employees have spent their time on. Project Hamster, actiTime, TimeCamp, Hubstaff, and Kimai, all are the most acclaimed time tracking software by many reviewers and Linux users across the globe. Each of the discussed tools offers seamless time tracking and reporting functionalities that enable companies or freelancers to manage their time, budgets, and accounting processes and operations.

Linux users are though less in number than the other platforms, still holds a significant market, and most of the servers, mainframe computers, and supercomputers are based on Linux.

Install Microsoft Teams on CentOS 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install Microsoft Teams on CentOS machine using different methods. You can either install Microsoft Teams by downloading and installing its RPM package from the official website or you can install the snap package. Microsoft Teams is a communication platform used for Chat, Calling, Meetings, and Collaboration. Generally, it is used by companies and individuals working on projects. Microsoft Teams is available for macOS, Windows, and Linux operating systems available now.


How to Install Microsoft Teams Linux on CentOS 8 ?

By default, Microsoft Teams Linux package is not available in the CentOS 8 default repository. You will need to download the RPM package for it. 

1. You can download it with the following command:

$ cd /tmp
$ wget https://packages.microsoft.com/yumrepos/ms-teams/teams-1.3.00.5153-1.x86_64.rpm

2. Once the package is downloaded, install the downloaded package with the following command:

$ dnf install teams-1.3.00.5153-1.x86_64.rpm


How to Remove Microsoft Teams from CentOS ?

1. To remove Microsoft Teams Linux from the CentOS 8, run the following command:

$ dnf remove teams

2. To remove Microsoft Teams Linux from the Ubuntu 18.04, run the following command:

$ dpkg -r teams

Install Arduino IDE on CentOS 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install Arduino IDE on CentOS machine either via the direct download method or the snap method. Also, you will learn how to uninstall Arduino. Arduino IDE stands for the "Arduino Integrated Development Environment". Arduino is used to create electronic devices that communicate with their environment using actuators and sensors. Arduino IDE contains an editor that is used for writing and uploading programs to the Arduino board. Before starting to create projects through Arduino, the user needs to set up an IDE for the programmable board.


How to Launch Arduino IDE on CentOS Linux System ?

Now, you will launch the Arduino IDE from the desktop. Click on 'Activities' and select show application form where you will launch Ardunio IDE to double click on the application icon.

You can also launch using the search bar, click on the 'Activities' where you can see a search bar. You will type 'Arduino' in the search bar.